Biology Test Four - Diffusion & Osmosis

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solute

substance that is dissolved in a solution

solvent

substance in which the solute is dissolved in a solution

diffusion

mixing of two substances by the random motion of molecules

from high concentration to low concentration

In what direction do molecules move during diffusion?

equilibrium

reached when the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system; diffusion stops at this point

concentration gradient

the differences between the concentration of a particular molecule in one are and the concentration of the same molecule in an adjacent area

osmosis

diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

from high concentration of water to low concentration of water

In what direction do molecules move during osmosis?

active transport

movement of particles that requires energy

from low concentration to high concentration

In what direction do molecules move during active transport?

sodium potassium ion pump

Give an example of active transport in the body

muscle contraction
nutrient absorption
nerve pulse transmission

The sodium potassium ion pump is very important for what 3 functions of the body?

facilitated diffusion

particles diffuse across the cell membrane with the help of proteins

from high concentration to low concentration

In what direction do molecules move during facilitated diffusion?

passive transport

process of moving molecules in the cell that does NOT use energy

diffusion
osmosis
facilitated diffusion

What are the 3 different types of passive transport?

bulk transport

used to move large particles in and out of the cell

exocytosis

type of bulk transport that moves material out of the cell

vesicle

membrane bound sacks of material made by the Golgi body

endocytosis

type of bulk transport where material is brought into the cell

pinocytosis

cell membrane encloses a droplet of fluid to bring into the cell

phagocytosis

cell membrane engulfs a solid substance to bring into the cell

white blood cells

an example of phagocytosis, these cells engulf and destroy bacteria and other invaders of the body

hypertonic

a solution in which the concentration of solutes in solution is higher than the concentration of solutes in the cell

hypotonic

a solution in which the concentration of solutes in solution is lower than the concentration of solutes in the cell

isotonic

a solution in which the concentration of solutes in the solution and in the cell are equal

cell expands

What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?

cell stays the same

What happens to a cell in an isotonic solution?

cell shrinks

What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?

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