Redistribution of representatives among the states, based on population change. Congress is reapportioned after each census
The formal charging of a government official with "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."
a current officeholder
Redrawing a congressional district to intentionally benefit one political party
Solving problems for constituents, especially problems involving government agencies
A belief that constituents are most effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in such key demographic characteristics as race, ethnicity, religion, or gender.
The drawing of a legislative district to maximize the chances that a minority candidate will win election
the presidents rejection of a bill that has been passed by both houses of congress. Congress can override a veto with a two-thirds vote in each house.
A means of killing a bill that has been passed by both houses of congress, in which the president neither signs the bill nor returns it to congress and congress adjourns within ten days of the bills passage
A permanent congressional committee that specializes in a particular legislative area, PREDOMINANT COMMITTEES
-They complete the day to day work
-They have subcommittees
-Party representation is proportional to the full senate or house
A committee made up of members of both the house and the senate
A congressional committee created for a specific purpose and, usually, for a limited time
A temporary committee created to work out differences between the house and senate versions of a specific piece of legislation
years of consecutive service on a particular congressional committee
the process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is caring out policies as Congress intended
speaker of the house
the presiding officer of the house of representatives
The head of the majority party in the senate; the second-highest-ranking member of the majority party in the house.
A delaying tactic, used in the Senate, that often involves speech making to prevent action on a piece of legislation.
The mechanism by which a filibuster is cut off in the senate
People who live and vote in a government officials district or state
A representative who is obligated to consider the views of constituents but is not obligated to vote according to those views if he or she believes they are misguided
A legislator whose primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents, regardless of his or her own view
A system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election of whose party forms a major part of the ruling coalition
Federal funds appropriated by congress for use on specific local projects
How did the framers envision the powers of congress?
-prevent concentration of powers but create a strong union
-Each state has two senators servicing six-year terms that are staggered and a certain number of representatives based on population as determined by the census
-House and senate share powers to declare war, raisin an army and navy, borrow and coin money, regulate the interstate commerce, create federal courts, establish rules for the naturalization of immigrants, and make all laws
-House has power to initiate revenue bills and to impeach
-Senate has the power to confirm presidential appointees, ratify treaties, and try cases of impeachment.
In what ways do incumbency and other factors affect the way voters elect members of Congress?
-Voters usually reelect incumbents
-Many believe descriptive representation is important, and laws have been engaged to encourage minority representation
-There are several explanations for the incumbency effect:
-gerrymandering during redistricting
-name recognition developed over time and maintained through media coverage, the franking privilege, and technology such as websites.
-provision of casework or problem solving for constituents
-campaign contributions, which go predominantly to incumbents
How do issues get on the congressional agenda?
-The congressional agenda is the broad, imprecise, and unwritten set of all the issues that Congress is considering.
-Sometimes a highly visible event causes issues to be put on the agenda by legislators
-Interest groups can bring an issue to the attention of legislators who more it to the agenda
-The formal legislative prices begins when a member introduces a bill, which is a proposal for a new law
What is the process by which bills become laws?
-Bills introduced to either the house are assigned to the committee with jurisdiction over that area.
-Subcommittees often hold a hearing, research the bill, and then modify the bill.
-If passed by a subcommittee, bills are sent for a vote by the full committee. If approved, they report to the entire membership for a vote.
-In the house, bills go to the rules committee for rules regarding debate amendments.
-If both chambers pass the bill, it goes to the president for his signature (approval) or veto (rejection).
- If signed, the bill is law
- If the president does not act on a bill within ten days, the bill becomes law if Congress is still in session.
- If Congress adjourns within that ten-day period, the president can let the bill die through a pocket veto.
What are the functions of congressional committees?
-Standing committees are predominant committees.
-Joint committees - members of both houses
-Select committees (temporary -specific purpose)
-Conference committees (temporary - mediation between houses)
-Committees - gather info, hold hearings, debate and modify
-Oversight - overviewing committees
Collect information on an issue, hold hearings, and debate and amend legislation in markup sessions
What is the leadership structure, and what procedures are used to run the house?
-Elects its own leaders
-majority party's leader is the Speaker of the House (actively shapes the house agenda and leadership)
-minority party leader is not an officer but nevertheless is important
What is the leadership structure, and what procedures are used to run the senate?
-Vice President is president but only appears to break a tie.
-Majority leader has the most power
-Formal rules, including filibuster
What are the informal rules of the house and senate?
-require junior members to follow lead of experienced legislators
What are the formal rules of the house and senate?
-Scheduling of legislation
-Movement of legislation to the floor
- Filibusters (senate only)
What cores the legislative environment to affect the decision making in Congress?