predictions of how 2 or more factors are likely to be related
the variable that the researcher manipulates
that factor that may change as a results of the manipulative variable
all of the individuals in the group to which the study applies
when every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
subgroup of population
the group that receives the treatment
the group that does not receive the treatment.
minims the existence of preexisting differences between the 2 groups.
difference between the experimental group and the control group other than those resulting from the independent variable.
the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable
occurs when a researches expectations or preferences about the outcome of the study influence the results.
clues participants discover about the purpose of the study.
when the participants don't know which treatment group they are in.
when the experimenter or the participant know who is in the experimental group or control group.
imitation pill, injection, patch, or other treatment
subjects sometimes believe that the treatment will be effective and they think they experience an improvement in health or well-being.
a research design that uses each participant as his or her own control.
procedure that assigns half of the subjects one of the treatments first and the other half of the subjects to the other treatment first.
when participants are not randomly assigned.
where naturally occurring behavior is observed
researched use questionnaires or interviews to ask large number of people questions about their behaviors, thoughts, attitudes.
ex post facto
look at an effect to seek the cause
procedures used to measure attributes of individuals at a particular time and place.
consistency of repeatability.
the extent to which an instrument measure or predicts what is supposed to happen.
case study method
is an in-depth examination of a specific group or single person that typically includes interviews,observations, and test scores.
numbers that are used to name something.
numbers that can be ranked
a meaningful difference between each of the numbers.
a meaningful ration can be made with 2 numbers
involves analysis of numerical data about representative samples of population.
orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or group of scores.