Praxis 2 Social Studies Study Guide

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Physical map

contains labels for countries and capital cities, as well as major physical features like plains, rivers,

Topographical map

the shape of the earth's surface is shown by contour lines; contour lines are imaginary lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level on the land's surface.

Political map

identifies continents and countries according to their political ideals.

Weather map

depicts the meteorological conditions over a specific geographic area at a specific time.

Aerial photograph

a photograph of an area on earth taken from an aircraft flying overhead.

Satellite image

image of a larger region on earth taken by a satellite orbiting in space.

Mercator map projection

accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses.

Equal-area map

shows correct size of land masses, but usually distorts their shapes.

Robinson map

a useful overall picture of the world; keeps correct size and shape of most continents and oceans,

Azimuthal map

true compass direction, usually circular, distorts scale, area and shape; usually used to show areas

Longitude

a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance east or west of the prime meridian. The prime

Latitude

a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance north or south of the equator. The equator is an

The International Dateline

an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole between Russia and

Continents

are great divisions of land on the globe; the large part of the surface of the earth that rises above sea

Oceans

are the largest bodies of salt water between the continents; there are 5 oceans

Seas

are large bodies of salt water; smaller than oceans.

Rivers

are large, natural streams of fresh water.

Bays

bodies of water, smaller than a gulf and nearly surrounded by land.

Mountain ranges

rows or chains of mountains. For example, the Himalayas

Plateau

a large, flat area that rises above the surrounding land; at least one side has a steep slope.

Valley

an elongated depression in the earth's surface, usually between ranges of hills or mountains.

Plains

an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.

Ice cap

a region which is covered by perennial ice and snow; a large glacier forming on an extensive area of

Tundra

a level and rolling treeless plain in artic and sub-artic regions with black mucky soil with permanently

Forest

- a large, thick growth of trees and underbrush.

Grassland

a large area of land covered with grasses.

Desert

a large, dry, barren region.

Island

an area of land which is completely surrounded by water.

7 continents

Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America. The largest is Asia.

5 Oceans

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Artic and Antarctic (Southern). The largest is the Pacific.

Major Seas

Mediterranean, Sea of Japan, Arabian, Black, Red, East China, South China, Caribbean, Bering

Major Rivers

Africa: Nile (world's longest), Congo (5th longest), Niger (largest delta in Africa), Zambezi (famous for the Victoria

Major Mountain ranges

Asia: Himalaya - largest mountain range on earth, Mt. Everest is its highest peak (29,035 feet), Karakoram and

Arab world

name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula; now used also for populations

Africa

- with 56 countries, the second-largest continent (after Asia), located south of Europe and bordered to the

North Africa

The Islamic states of North Africa became free during the 1950's and the 1960's.

Sub-Saharan Africa

consists of the African countries located south of the Sahara desert.

Apartheid

extreme racial segregation was practiced by the white minority who controlled the government.

Latin America

Spanish or Portuguese-speaking nations south of the U.S.

The Caribbean

he Caribbean Sea is in the Atlantic Ocean, bordered by the West Indies to the north and east, South

North America

third largest continent, comprising Mexico, the United States, Canada and Central America:

Mexico

Mexico's northern border is the United States, to the west, the Pacific Ocean and to the east, the Gulf of

United States

Country with a Constitution-based Federal Republic with a strong democratic tradition.

Central America

the southern most part of the North American continent, lying between Mexico and South

Western Europe

Western European democratic governments: Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium,

Eastern Europe

the former Eastern Bloc, or Communist Europe.

East Asia

countries include: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, North Korea, China, and Mongolia.

Japan

after WWII, _____ became a powerhouse unexpectedly.

Taiwan and South Korea - both have developed prosperous and free societies.

Both these societies were anticommunist and had a parliament, however the government was run by one dominant

North Korea

After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea.

China

The people's republic of China is the largest communist population in the world.

South Central Asia

- countries include: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Bangladesh, Kyrgystan, Pakistan,

Pakistan

has become a modern Islamic republic and a major regional power, having nuclear bomb capabilities. It is

Afghanistan

was an Islamic oligarchy, but had its first democratic elections in 2004, after the defeat of the Taliban

Uzbekistan

has a republic, authoritarian presidential rule.

Kazakhstan

has a republic authoritarian presidential rule.

Sri Lanka

is a republic.

Iran

has an Islamic theocratic republic.

Bangladesh

has a parliamentary democracy.

India

has become the world's largest democracy and also a nuclear power.

Southeast Asia

a geographical subdivision of Asia which includes the following nations: Burma, Cambodia,

Oceania

the islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia and

Australia

a democratic, federal state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign.

Seasons:

because the Earth is closer to the Sun during parts of its elliptical orbit than at other times, and due to the

Summer Solstice

occurs in the Northern Hemisphere on June 21 or 22. One of the Earth's poles is tilted directly

Fall Equinox

in the Northern Hemisphere this occurs on September 22 or 23; in the Southern Hemisphere this

Winter Solstice

In the Northern Hemisphere it is on December 21 or 22; areas north of the Arctic Circle have 24

Spring Equinox

the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both

Climate

is a region's usual long-term weather patterns. Average temperatures, amounts and kinds of precipitation,

Weather

the short-term state of the atmosphere at any particular time and place. Weather involves temperature, air

Floods

water overflows its natural or artificial banks into normally dry land.

Drought

periods of time when less rain than normal falls in an area. During these times, crops fail and soil dries out

Snowstorms

have a significant effect on plant, animal and human life. Snow increases the reflection of solar

Earthquakes

tremors of the Earth's surface, sometimes violent and devastating, which result from shock waves

Plate Tectonics

heory which explains the distribution of continents, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains. Plates

Earthquakes create mountain ranges:

Mountain ranges are thought to form from tectonic plates colliding together and pushing the surface of the Earth

Grand Canyon:

The Grand Canyon is a 5,000 foot deep gorge which was carved into the Earth's surface by the Colorado River, in

Yosemite Valley:

Located in California, Yosemite is famous for dramatic rock formations and water falls.

Dispersed settlements

occur in rural areas; the amount of land between each of the dwellings depends on the

Linear settlements

tend to follow roads and river valleys which allows easy communication, and flat lands which

Nucleated settlements

generally found located around ports, harbors and roads; they have a center, or "nucleus."

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization - an international organization, formed in 1949, which includes the

Organization of African Unity

The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963. Originally 32

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - an organization of about a dozen nations that sell oil to

Developing nations:

A nation in which the average income is much lower than in industrialized/developed nations,

Canada

- largest trading partner with the United States. 20% of all U.S. international trade.

Construction of houses, roads, and cities

In the U.S., about a million acres of farmland (an area half the size of

Human-initiated fire

human-initiated fires for land clearing and land use can quickly develop into large-scale and

Water and air pollution:

Most water pollution is the result of human activities; wastes produced by households,

Waste disposal

There are three methods of handling solid waste: burying, recycling, and burning.

Chernobyl Ukraine explosion

In 1986, an explosion in a nuclear power station - was the worst nuclear accident ever.

Desertification

the transformation of arable, or habitable, land into desert, as by a change in climate, or by

Logging

there are two methods: clear-cutting and selective cutting.

Erosion

the process by which weathered particles are moved to another location.

Deforestation

the process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else.

Global warming

the term attached to the belief that the Earth's temperature is gradually increasing due to the

Ozone-layer "hole"

a periodic depletion of the ozone layer that occurs over Antarctica

Natural resources:

A natural resource is anything in the environment that is used by people.

Renewable resource

any resource, such as wood, wind, water or solar energy, that can or will be replenished

Nonrenewable resource

natural resources that are not replaced in a useful time frame.

Ecosystems

An ecosystem is a collection of living things and the environment in which they live.

Industrial Revolution:

the Industrial revolution was a rapid industrial growth that began in

Conflicts in the Middle East:

The Middle East is the region in western Asia and northeast Africa that

Korea in the 1940's and 1950's and Vietnam in the 1960's and 1970's:

Looking at a map of North Korea and North Vietnam, you will notice that they are both right next to communist

Native Americans removed from their land to fulfill the Manifest Destiny:

In the 1800's, the newly built railroad trains brought merchants, miners, ranchers, and farmers from the settled East

Prehistory

is the period of time before people began writing.

History beginning

The beginning of history can be traced back before the first human beings appeared about 3 billion years ago.

Paleolithic

the name given to the Old Stone Age and the time period where most of human pre-history took place.

Cro-Magnons

similar bone structure to us today. Probably our direct ancestors.

Neanderthals

In Europe, another human species lived and adapted to life in the cold climates of the last Ice Age.

Homo sapiens"

(wise man), became dominant. They made tools from stone and

Neolithic

the period of time about 10,000 B.C., also called the New Stone Age.

Mesopotamia

means between two rivers: Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers meet in southern Iraq.

Invention of writing:

Western writing first developed here in 3500 B.C. Writing was done with sticks on clay

Code of Hammurabi

a king in ancient Mesopotamia who was known for putting 282 laws of his country into a

First city-states

3000 B.C. - each city acted as a state with its own special gods or goddesses

Military expertise:

soldiers fought mainly on foot, some rode in chariots drawn by wild donkeys.

Architectural monuments

Sumerians built temples to worship the gods. Slaves taken captive in war were

Technological capabilities

- brick makers fired bricks in kilns to produce building materials for structures that were

Alexander the Great:

King of Macedonia, He joined to help defeat the Persians that Athens and Sparta had been fighting together 490 - 479.

Athens

rich and cultured, astronomers, mathematics, thinkers, writers, artists, society with slaves.

Sparta

Best Army, economy based on slave workers, no democracy, sports encouraged for both boys and girls, boys

Rome

Rome rose to power thanks to its fertile farmland, its army (best in Europe) and its key position in the

Roman Mythology

The Romans believed in many of the Gods the Greeks did but gave them Latin names.

The Roman Empire:

At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east. At its largest,

The decline and fall of the Roman empire

In the end, not even the Roman army could control such a huge empire. The

Islam

means peace and submission. There is one God, Allah, and Mohammad is his prophet. People called

Judaism

The first monotheistic (one-God) religion. Jews believe that Moses' prophecies are true and the Messiah

Christianity

believes that there is one God and Jesus Christ was his son, a prophet. Jesus is called Christ

Hinduism

ancient India's first great religion. No unified systems of beliefs or ideas. There's only one supreme God

India

republic in southeast Asia, capital is New Delhi.

Caste system

a division in society into groups of higher power and lower power socially.

Hinduism

religion of India that emphasizes freedom from the material world thru

Buddhism

A religion, founded by Buddha, that believes that the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping

Confucianism

500 BC, a scholar named Confucius taught a system of "right behavior" which has influenced

Taoism

a religion native to China, its adherents attempt to live according to the Tao - the "way" which

Feudalism

In theory, the emperor owned all the land and gave portions of the land to his leading nobles in

Shintoism

Shinto means the way of the gods and was the traditional religion of Japan.

Buddhism

the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping gods, but in right thinking and selfdenial.

Shoguns

For 700 years, Japan was under the rule of the Japanese military leaders known as shoguns.

Emperors

he male ruler of the Japanese empire.

Samurai

Japanese soldiers who served the land owned by the lords (daimyos).

Sub-Saharan Africa

Africa south of the Sarah desert, the countries not part of North Africa. Also known as Black

Mayans

Central America, biggest cities were in modern day Guatemala (south of Mexico), most powerful from

Aztecs

North America / Mexico. 1300 - 1520 They had two main cities, Tenochtitlan (Mexico city today) and Tlatelco. These two cities had a population of half

Incas

1300's - 1536 They built a huge empire in the Andes which grew to include 3,000 miles from north to

Feudalism

was the way of life that governed Medieval Europe for hundreds of years during the 9th century.

The Black Death:

1331 - 1430 A popular name for the bubonic plague and one of the greatest medical disasters in

Gunpowder weapons

allowed European sailors to carry muskets, pistols, and small artillery pieces that they could

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