a substance that releases hydrogen (H+) ions in water. Acidic solutions have a pH below 7.0
one of four nitrogenous bases found in DNA. Adenine forms base pairs with thymine.
also known as a base, a substance that releases hydroxide (OH-) ions in water. Basic solutions have a pH above 7.0.
when used in reference to DNA, antiparallel refers to the orientation of the sugar phosphate backbones of double-stranded DNA running in opposite directions
single-celled prokaryotic organisms.
a virus that infects bacteria
a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) in water. Basic solutions have a pH above 7.0
a device that spins rapidly and uses this spinning , or centrifugal, force to separate particles of different densities
statements describing certain invariable properties of DNA, which can be stated as follows: the number of adenine molecules in and organism's DNA always equals the number of thymines, and the number of guanines equals the number of cytosines. Also, the number of the purines (adenine and guanine) equals the number of pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine) in each organism.
DNA associated with histones and other proteins that assumes the shape of long thread-like fibers.
units of highly condensed and compacted chromatin, which are visible in the cell prior to cell division. Chromosomes consist of DNA, and therefore, the genes that pass from parent to offspring.
complementary pairs (base pairs)
nitrogenous bases that follow Chargaff's rules. Adenine and thymine are complementary pairs b/c adenine always pairs with thymine and likewise, guanine and cytosine are complementary pairs.
a single DNA strand containing nitrogenous bases in a sequence that precisely forms base pairs with another DNA strand.
the cell contents between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope.
one of four nitrogenous bases found in DNA. -forms base pairs with guanine
daughter strand (DNA)
a new strand of DNA that is complementary to the original, parent strand from which it is synthesized.
the five-carbon sugar molecule found in each DNA nucleotide.
the double helix of nucleotides that functions as hereditary material as it is passed through generations in all living organisms.
DNA double helix
the long, twised-ladder shaped structure comprised of two stands of nucleotides running in opposite directions. The DNA strands of the double helix are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases
and enzyme that catalyzes DNA replication by linking incoming nucleotides together as an elongating DNA daughter strand.
the process of creating new copies of DNA. DNA undergoes semiconservitive replication
the female gamete (sex cell)
a molecule that greatly increases the rate of chemical reactions or allows a reaction to occur under less than optimal conditions.
a discrete unit of DNA nucleotides that codes for a particular trait of characteristic.
one of 4 nitrogenous bases found in DNA. Pairs with cytosine
the passing of genes, or traits, from parent to offspring.
positively charged protein molecules that interact with negatively charged phosphate groups in DNA. DNA wraps around groups of histones and other proteins to assemble into nucleosomes, which assemble into chromatin.
an atom of an element that has a different number of neutrons in it nucleus than normal. Often unstable and emit small particles of radioactive energy that can be measured.
short sections of DNA (Okazaki fragments) synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction along the DNA parent stand that opens up in the 3' to 5' direction. Occurs as DNA polymerase moves away from the replication fork.
leading strand (DNA)
the continually elongating strand of DNA synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction along the parent strand that opens up in the 5' to 3' direction. Occurs as DNA polymerase moves toward the replication fork.
an enzyme that attaches the Okazaki fragments of the lagging strand together to form a continuous strand of DNA during DNA replication
a process in which a cell's genetic material is duplicated and divides twice to yield four new cells with exactly half as much genetic material. Leads to the formation of sex cells.
a process in which a cell's genetic material is duplicated before it divides equally into two cells.
one of the four nitrogen-rich purine or pyrimidine base molecules responsible for forming the hydrogen bonds that hold double stranded DNA together.
a term coined by Frederick Meishcer for the grayish substance he observed after treating the cell nucleus with acid and then alkali. Now known as chromatin.
a nitrogenous base molecule attached to a sugar molecule and three phosphate groups. Two of the the three phosphate groups are removed from ________ ____________ as the resulting nucleotides are incorporated into growing DNA strands.
units of DNA associated with histones and other proteins that pack tightly together as chromatin.
a building block of DNA. Each of the four ________ contains a single deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous base molecules
the double membrane bound region within eukaryotic cells that houses genetic material
small fragments of DNA comprising the lagging strand during DNA synthesis..
origins of replication
the specific regions where double-stranded DNA opens up prior to DNA replication
each single strand of the double-stranded DNA double helix, which separate during DNA replication.
a family tree illustrating the inheritance of genes, or various traits or characteristics coded for by genes.
a phosphorous atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms.
the type of bond that links the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA together
the abbevieated name for Streptococcus pnemoniae, the bacterium capable of causing the disease pneumonia.
a short piece of RNA that binds to single-stranded DNA near a replication fork. DNA nucleotides bind to the primer at the beginning of DNA synthesis.
a unicellular organism in which DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus.
a molecule composed of many amino acid subunits folded into a specific from. Act as enzymes, cellular transporters, and structural materials, among other things.
one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA nucleotides. Are five-membered rings made of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen attached to a six-membered pyrimidine type of ring. There are two-Adenine and Guanine, in DNA.
one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA nucleotides. Are six membered rings made of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. . Two types Thymine and Cytosine, in DNA
capable of emitting, or radiating, energy in the form of particles or rays from a decaying atom.
y-shaped regions at both ends of the separated DNA parent strands that serve as templates for new DNA synthesis
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
the type of nucleic acid found mainly in the cytoplasm, which plays a large role in the production of proteins. RNA differs from DNA in that it is always single stranded' the sugar molecules are ribose instead of the DNA sugar, deoxyribose' and the DNA base thymine is replaced with uracil in RNA
the five-carbon sugar mokecule found in each RNA nucleotide.
rough strain pneumococcus
a form of the pnumococcus bacterium that does not cause pneumonia
the manner in which DNA replication occurs. When double-stranded DNA separates to yield two single parent strands, daughter srands are made that form complementary base pairs to the original parent strands.
a chromosome that determines the gender of and organism
smooth strain pneumococcus
a form of the pneumococcus bacterium that cause pneumonia
one of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA. Forms base pairs with adenine
a distinguishable characteristic of an organism
the transfer of DNA into a cell
a harmless molecule or variant of a disease-causing organism which stimulates the immune system to mount an immune response against the organism if it is later encountered.
a process in which X-rays are aimed at a crystalline form of a substance and the x-rays interact with the substance and re-emerge in a patter that can be captured on X-ray film.