Civil Works Administration (CWA)
FDR created the _______ to cope with the added economic difficulties brought on by the cold winter months of 1933. The ______ spent approximately $1 billion on short-term projects for the unemployed, but the program was abolished in the spring of that year.
Federal Securities Act
The May 1933 ______ made corporate executives liable for any misrepresentation of securities issued by their companies. It paved the way for future acts to regulate the stock market.
Fair Labor Standards Act
The 1938 ______ provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipment of goods produced with child labor, symbolizing the FDR administration's commitment to working together with labor forces.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
The ______, created in 1933 as part of FDR's New Deal, pumped money into the economy by employing the destitute in conservation and other projects.
National War Labor Board
The ______ monitored and regulated the efforts of organized labor during World War II. Although the board restricted wage increases, it also encouraged the extension of many fringe benefits to American workers.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Much of the $5 billion allocated to FDR by the Emergency Relief Allocation Act of 1935 went to the creation of the ______. Over eight years, the _______ provided work for the unemployed of all backgrounds, from industrial engineers to authors and artists. Partially owing to ______ efforts, unemployment fell by over five percent between 1935 and 1937.
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
The _______, perhaps the most important element of the first New Deal, established a forum in which business and government officials met to set regulations for fair competition. These regulations bound industry from 1933 until 1935, when the Supreme Court declared the _______ unconstitutional.
Office of War Information
The ______ employed artists, writers, and advertisers to shape public opinion concerning World War II. The ______ publicized reasons for U.S. entry into the war, often portraying the enemy Axis powers as barbaric and cruel.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
The opening act of the New Deal, the ______ provided a framework for the many banks that had closed early in 1933 to reopen with federal suport.
Smith-Connolly War Labor Disputes Act
The generally amiable relationship between the government and organized labor during World War II eroded with the passage of the _______ in June 1943. The act limited the right to strike in key industries and authorized the president to intervene in any strike.
The popular name for the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, the ______ provided a framework for collective bargaining. It granted workers the right to join unions and engage in bargaining, and forbade employers from interfering with, or discriminating against, union rights. The act demonstrated the support of FDR's administration for labor needs and unionization.
War Production Board
Created in 1942, ______ oversaw the production of the thousands of planes, tanks, artillery pieces, and munitions, that FDR requested once the U.S. entered the war. The board allocated scarce resources and shifted domestic production from civilian to military goods.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Part of FDR's New Deal, the ______ worked to develop energy production sites and conserve resources in the Tennessee Valley. Although the ______ pumped money into the economy and completed a number of major projects, environmentalists, advocates of energy conservation, and opponents of nuclear power all eventually found reason to oppose the TVA.
Federal Home Loan Bank Act
A late effort by Hoover to address the problems of the destitute, the 1932 _______ established a series of banks to make loans to other banks, building and loan associations, and insurance agencies in an attempt to prevent foreclosures on private homes.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Created in 1933 as part of FDR's New Deal, the ______ controlled the production of crops, and thus prices, by offering subsidies to farmers who produced under set quotas. The Supreme Court declared the ______ unconstitutional in 1936.
Emergency Committee for Unemployment
The ______ was Herbert Hoover's principal effort to lower the unemployment rate. Established in October 1930, the ______ sought to organize unemployment relief by voluntary agencies, but Hoover granted the ______ only limited resources with which to work.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
The ______ was created as part of the first New Deal to increase faith in the banking system by insuring individual deposits with federal funds.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The ______ was created in 1934 to regulate the stock market. It enforced the Securities Act of May 1933, which required that investors know particular information about a stock. The Commission was established to prevent a recurrence of the Stock Market crash of 1929, and to reduce abuses in the system.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
The _____, founded in 1920, seeks to protect the civil liberties of individuals in the U.S., often by bringing "test cases" to court in order to challenge questionable laws. In 1925, the ______ challenged a Christian fundamentalist law in the Scopes Monkey trial.
Office of Strategic Services (OSS)
The ______ was established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1942 to conduct espionage, collect information crucial to strategic planning, and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy.
Revenue Act of 1942
The ______ raised taxes to help finance the war effort. The act hiked rates for the wealthiest Americans and included new middle- and lower-income tax brackets, vastly increasing the number of Americans responsible for paying taxes.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Created by the National Industrial Recovery Act as part of the New Deal, the ______ spend over $4 million on projects designed to employ the jobless and reinvigorate the economy.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
The ______ emerged from within the American Federal of Labor in 1938. The ______ became and influential labor group, operating during an era of government and business cooperation. In 1955, it merged with the AFL to become the AFL-_______.