pollution of the atmosphere
primary air pollutants
produced by humans & nature (CO, CO2, SO2, NO, hydrocarbons, particulates).
sources include burning fossil fuels and car exhaust. Effects include reduced visibility, respiratory irritation. Methods of reduction include filtering, electrostatic precipitators, alternative energy).
secondary air pollutants
pollutants that are formed when primary pollutants interact with sunlight and other gases in the atmosphere
solid particulate matter
Dust, soil particles, soot, lead, asbestos, etc.
(NOx) Major source is auto exhaust. Primary and secondary effects include acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog and ozone. Reduced using catalytic converters.
a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation
(SOx) Primary source is coal burning. Primary and secondary effects include acid deposition, respiratory irritation, plant damage. Reduction methods include: scrubbers, burn low sulfur fuel.
(Source: auto exhaust, incomplete combustion) (Effects: CO binds to hemoglobin reducing bloods ability to carry O, CO2 contributes to global warming) (Reduction: catalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit)
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen
hazardous air pollutants/air toxics
Air pollutants that are potentially harmful and may pose long-term health risks to people who live and work around chemical factories, incinerators, or other facilities that produce or use them. Also called air toxics.
haze caused by the interaction of ultraviolet solar radiation with chemical fumes from automobile exhausts and other pollution sources
Type of air pollution consisting mostly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide, suspended droplets of sulfuric acid formed from some of the sulfur dioxide, and a variety of suspended solid particles. Compare photochemical smog.
a brownish haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals, formed when pollutants react with each other in the presence of sunlight
temperature inversion/thermal inversion
A layer of cold air temporarily trapped near the ground by a warmer, upper layer. If a thermal inversion persists, air pollutants may build up to harmful or even dangerous levels.
urban heat island
Local heat buildup in an area of high population density
High concentrations of dust and aerosols in the air over cities.
Clean Air Act
1970- law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standardds for private industry
global distillation effect
the process whereby volatile chemicals evaporate from land as far away as the tropics and are carried by air currents to higher latitudes, where they condense and fall to the ground
sick building syndrome
headaches, allergies, chronic fatigue and other symptoms caused by poorly vented indoor air contaminated by pathogens or toxins
A gas that arises from the earth where radioactive materials are present.
Rich deposits of iron supplied Pa's iron industry in the 1700 and 1800's. Marked by low hills, steep ridges and valleys.
rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura; associated with asbestos exposure
Type of pollution characterized by unwanted or potentially damaging sound.
a unit of sound measurement
what sound is measured in
85 dbA can be damaging
120 dbA is painful
180 dbA can kill
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
Receptor cells within the cochlea that transduce vibrations into nerve impulses
when trees and crops are planted together, creating a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between them.
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
enhanced greenhouse effect
the increased capacity of the atmosphere to trap thermal energy because of an increase in greenhouse gases
tiny solid particles or liquid droplets that remain suspended in the atmosphere for a long time
atmospheric cooling that occurs where and when aerosol pollution is the greatest
feedback in opposite phase with (decreasing) the input
ground that is permanently frozen
controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries
Projects to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel or to ameliorate their effects.
ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Short-wave radiation from the sun, most of which is absorbed by the ozone layer. A large quantity can be harmful to living things.
meeting in 1987 where a group of nations met in Canada and agreed to take steps to fight against Ozone Depletion-CFC's banned
Organic compounds made up of atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. An example is Freon-12 (CCl2F2), used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners and in making plastics such as Styrofoam. Gaseous CFCs can deplete the ozone layer when they slowly rise into the stratosphere and their chlorine atoms react with ozone molecules.
caused by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters
a form of acid deposition in which acid falls to Earth as precipitation.
A form of acid deposition in which dry, sulfate-containing particles settle out of the air.
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
A gradual deterioration (and often death) of many trees in a forest; may be the result of a combination of environmental stressors, such as acid precipitation , toxic heavy metals, and surface-level ozone.