Art History II Mid-Term Study Guide

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buon fresco

true or wet fresco; pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster

protestant reformation

Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446)

predella

A step or platform on which an altar is placed

Black Death

An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.

tapestry

a heavy cloth woven with rich, often varicolored designs or scenes, usually hung on walls for decoration and sometimes used to cover furniture

indulgence

the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution

Holy Roman Empire

The empire set up in western Europe following the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor in the year 800. It was created by the medieval papacy in an attempt to unite Christendom under one rule. At times the territory of the empire was extensive and included Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of Italy and the Netherlands.

atmospheric perspective

A method of rendering the effect of spatial distance by subtle variations in color and clarity of representation.

altarpiece

a painted or carved screen placed above and behind an altar or communion table

triptych

art consisting of a painting or carving (especially an altarpiece) on three panels (usually hinged together)

Inquisition

A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy (contrary beliefs to Orthodox church) - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.

oil painting

A painting technique using oil-based pigments that rose to prominence in Northern Europe in the 15th century and is now the standard medium for painting on canvas

linear perspective

A type of perspective used by artists in which the relative size, shape, and position of objects are determined by drawn or imagined lines converging at a point on the horizon.

Flanders

Region where the Renaissance began in northern Europe, and the medieval country in northern Europe that included regions now parts of northern France and Belgium and southwestern Netherlands

flamboyant

elaborately or excessively ornamented

disguised symbolism

A Northern Renaissance technique of giving a spiritual meaning to ordinary objects in the painting, so these detail can carry the spiritual message

woodcuts

used to make illustrations by carving a picture in a block of wood, inking it, and pressing it onto paper

St. Francis of Assisi

Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars; treated all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters; born to wealthy merchant family and willingly gave up a life of comfort to live a simple and spartan way

anamorphosis

the use of perspective to create a distorted image that appears naturalistic when viewed at an extreme angle

intaglio

design engraved by making cuts in a surface, into which the incised figure is sunk

engraving

art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints

burin

A pointed tool used for engraving or incising.

module

a standard unit of measure, esp one used to coordinate the dimensions of buildings and components; in classical architecture, half the diameter of a column at the base of the shaft

Madonna

The Virgin Mary, an idealized virtuous and beautiful woman.

allegory

A device used to present an idea, as a visual symbolic representation. Ex:) grim reaper is symbolic representation of death

guild

In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests. (403)

rustication

Type of decorative masonry achieved by cutting back the edges of stones to a plane surface while leaving the central portion of the face either rough or projecting markedly. Rustication provides a rich and bold surface for exterior masonry walls.

equestrian

depicting or representing a person on horseback

grid

A network of horizontal and vertical lines superimposed over a map, building plan, etc., for locating points.

palazzo

an impressive public building or private residence; palace

orthogonal

lines that appear to recede toward a vanishing point in a painting with linear perspective

refectory

A dining hall in a religious house, a college, or other institution

Neoplatonism

Views based on the ideas of Plato that one should search beyond appearances for true knowledge

sfumato

Art technique started by Leonardo da Vinci that overlays translucent layers of color to create perceptions of depth, volume, and form

tondo

circular work of art; either a painting or a sculpture

pieta

A painting, drawing, or sculpture of Mary, the Mother of Jesus, holding the dead body of Jesus. The word means "pity" in Italian.

Mannerism

Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.

patronage

One that supports, protects, or champions someone or something, such as an institution, event, or cause; a sponsor or benefactor: a patron of the arts.

Greek cross

A cross with four arms of equal length and at right angles.

chiaroscuro

In drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark, especially the gradations of light that produce the effect of modeling

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