What Theory did Einstein make? What was it?
Theory of Relativity; about how space and time relate to each other
What did Freud say?
Said the unconscious mind drives what we do and most of it is irrational
What did Franz Kafka write? What kind of stories were they?
"The Trial" and "The Castle"
What new style of writing did James Joyce introduce?
"Stream of consciousness" wrote the way the brain worked
People who believe there is no universal meaning to life and that you get life meaning through the choices you make
What did Nietzsche believe?
Believed Western values limited creativity, so we need to return to ancient values
Who are two examples of expressionist painters?
Kandinsky and Klee
What is cubism?
A new form of paint that developed. It would take normal shapes and make them geometrical. Picasso painted this way.
What did Stravinsky write?
"The Rite of Spring" which was a musical piece with many harsh sounds coming together
What are the jazz cities and what did jazz reflect?
Memphis, New Orleans, and Chicago. It reflected the attitude of people who are happy they survived
What sort of changes were made for women?
They gave their jobs back to the men, began wanting to get education, and changed the way they dressed
In what ways did women change their appearance? How were they rebellious?
Began wearing dresses that hit just below the knee, sleeves to mid-arm, loser collars, bobbed their hair. Mega rebellious ones wore makeup, smoked in public, drove cars, and drank in public
How were cars improved?
Electric starters, headlights, air-filled tires
Who was the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic?
Who was trying to be the first woman to fly around the world?
What changes were made when it came to radio and movies?
1st commercial radio in Pittsburg; begin broadcasting plays, sports, news, etc; sound added to movies
What only two countries came out stronger after WWI?
Japan and the US
What were coalition governments?
Parties would come together and make temporary alliances, but were often unstable
What was the Weimar Republic?
In Germany; provisional government that took the blame for everything
What was the Dawes plan?
Developed by American banker Charles Dawes; his plan to help stabilize Germany economy by saying the US should give Germany $200 million in loans, and then people would start using money again
What agreement do Stressemann from Germany and Briand from France make? What is this called?
That they will never fight each other and Germany will respect France and Belgium borders; Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact
What were three flaws in the US?
Uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction, and buying less
Explain uneven distribution of wealth
30% of wealth was in the hands of only 1-2% of people; majority lived off less than $2,000 a year
Industry- we were making a lot of stuff for the war and when it ended we never stopped
Farming- had been farming a lot during war and at first still needed to overproduce, but also had competition, so prices started to tank
Explain buying less
Because we overproduced and people are getting laid off, people start buying less
What was "buying on the margin"
People started to buy a lot of stock, and buying on the margin was when someone gives a little and borrows from stockbroker who loans the rest to buy stock
What were ripple effects of the Great Depression?
Government put on high tariffs, asked for money back from European countries but they couldn't pay us back, worldwide trade dropped 65%, Germany faced a double whammy
Britain's National Government
Name of Britain's coalition; put up high tariffs, raised taxes, lowered interest rates, maintains democracy and stability
France's coalition; socialist/Marxist driven
What was the New Deal? Who made it?
FDR made it when he was president; it made new jobs, and the point of it was to put people to work
extreme nationalism- loyal to country and obedient to leader
Italian newspaper editor who was fascist; he gets enough followers that he is demanded to be put in charge of Italy; never quite takes total control
What was Mussolini's nickname?
"Il Duce" or "The Leader"
What changes did Mussolini make?
Banned other political parties, secret police force, censorship, outlawed strikes and labor unions
Fought in Germany army in WWI, won the Iron Man military award twice, moved to Germany from Austria
What group did Hitler get involved with?
Nazi group, which was a small, radical group
When Hitler takes over the Nazi group, what do they nickname him?
"der Fuhrer" or "The Leader"
When Hitler is tried with treason, how long is he sentenced to stay in jail? How long does he actually serve?
5 years; stays 9 months
While Hitler is in prison, what does he write?
"Mein Kampf" or "My struggle"
What did "Lebensraum" mean?
What piece of land did Hitler think Germany should take because they needed more living space?
Poland and Russia
Who appoints Hitler as chancellor?
What is the German government called?
What did Hitler immediately call for when he became chancellor? What was he hoping to accomplish?
New elections; wanted Nazi's to be majority in Reichstag building
Who probably burned down the Reichstag? Who did the Nazi's blame?
Nazis, but blame communists
What changes did Hitler make?
Outlaws all other political parties, created two elite police forces (SS reports directly to Hitler, Gestapo to Nazis), takes over economy, censorship, indoctrination, anti-semitism, laws limited Jews
What group did German boys have to go to? German girls?
Girls- League of German Girls
What was Kristallnacht? What did it mean?
"Night of broken glass" on the night of Nov 9 1938 Jewish families were beat, synagogues destroyed, etc
Whose democracy survived when no one else's did?
What form of government did Japan go back to?
Who does Japan invade?
Manchuria then China
Who does Mussolini want revenge on?
What piece of land does Hitler want?
Rhineland, which is a 30 mile stretch and very resourceful; buffer zone between Britain and France
What agreement do Mussolini and Hitler sign?
Who later joins the Rome-Berlin Axis? What does it turn into?
Japan; Axis Powers
Which Spanish fascist leads civil war?
Who helps Franco?
Hitler and Mussolini
Does Franco join Axis Powers?
What were the Neutrality Acts?
Acts US passed banning the power to loan money to a country at war or trade weapons with a country at war
What was the Third Reich?
Empire Hitler wanted to build
What did Hitler have to do to build an empire?
Conquer an independent country
Who did Hitler take over?
Austria, but they wanted him to
What land did Hitler have to fight for?
Who does the Czech ask for help when Hitler tries to take Sudetenland?
Britain and France
What meeting does Mussolini call? Who goes? What is decided?
Munich Conference; Hitler for Germany, Mussolini for Italy, Chamberlain for Britain, and someone from France; decide Hitler gets Sudetenland
What is appeasement?
Giving into what Hitler wants
Does Hitler stay true to the agreement?
No, less than 6 months later takes over rest of Czech
Who does Britain and France ask to ally with them? Who do they ally with instead?
Soviets, who ally with Hitler. Sign Nonagression Pact saying they will not fight each other