# Ms Bravo exam vocab

## 232 terms

### Science

is a way of learning about the natural world

### Observing

using one or more of your senses to gather information

### Inferring

When you explain or interpret the things you observe

### Predicting

making a statement or a claim about what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence

### Classifying

the grouping together of items that are alike in some way

### Evaluating

involves comparing observations and data to reach a conclusion about them

### Making models

involves creating representations of complex objects or processes

### Variables

factors that can change in an experiment

### Independent variable

factor that is changed to test a hypothesis

### Dependent variable

changes in response to the independent variable

### Skepticism

having an attitude of doubt

### Ethics

rules that enable people to know right from wrong

### Personal bias

comes from person likes and dislikes

### Cultural bias

stems from the culture in which a person grows up

### Experimental bias

mistakes in an experiment that makes a particular result more likely

### Objectives

makes decisions and draw conclusions based on available evidence

### Subjective

personal feelings have entered into a decision or conclusion

### Deductive reasoning

reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)

### Metric System

is a measurement system based on the number ten

### International System of Units (SI)

a version of the metric system used by modern scientist

### Mass

is a measure of the amount of matter in an object

### Weight

a measure of the force acting on an object

### Volume

the amount of space an object or substance takes up

### Density

a measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume

### Meniscus

the curved upper surface of a liquid in a column of liquid

### Estimate

an approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions

### Accuracy

refers to how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value

### Precision

refers to how close a group of measurements are to each other

### Significant figures

in a measurement include all digits measured exactly, plus one estimated digit

### Percent error

calculations are a way to determine how accurate an experimental value is

### Mean

the numerical average of a set of data

### Median

the middle number in a set of data

### Mode

the number that appears most often in a list of numbers

### Range

set of data is the difference between the greatest value and the least value in the set

### Anomalous data

data that do not fit with the reset of a data set

### Linear graph

a line in which that data points yield a straight line

### Nonlinear graph

the kind of graph in which the data points do not follow along a straight line

### Scientific inquiry

refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather

### Hypothesis

a possible answer to a scientific question

### Controlled experiment

an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time

### Data

the facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through qualitative and quantitative observations

### Repeated trails

are a repetition of an experiment

### Scientific explanation

describes how something works or why something happens

### Empirical evidence

data and observations that have been collected through scientific processes

### Opinion

an idea that may be formed from evidence but has not been confirmed by evidence

### Controversy

public disagreement between groups

### Scientific theory

a well tested explanation for a wide range of observations of experimental results

### Scientific law

a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions

### Model

any representation of an object or process

### Systems

a group of parts that work together to perform a function or produce a result

### Input

the material that goes into a system

### Process

what happens in a system

### Output

material or energy that comes out of a system

### Feedback

output that changed the system in someway

### Seismic wave

produced when earthquakes occur

### Pressure

results from a force pressing on an area

### Crust

layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin

### Basalt

dark, fine-grained rock

### Granite

rock that usually is a light color and has coarse grains

### Mantle

a layer of hot rock

### Lithosphere

geologist often group the crust and uppermost mantle into a single layer

### Asthenosphere

below the lithosphere ; soft layer

### Outer core

layer of molten metal surrounding the inner core

### Inner core

a dense ball of metal

### Rock

forming minerals; are the approximately twenty minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth's crust

### Grains

particles of minerals or other rocks

### Texture

the look and feel of a rock's surface

### Igneous rock

forms from the cooling o molten material called magma or lava

### Sedimentary rock

forms when small particles of rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together

### Metamorphic rock

forms when a rock is changed by heat or pressure or by chemical reactions

### Extrusive rock

igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto Earth's surface

### Intrusive rock

igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath the surface of the Earth

### Foliated

describes the thin, flat layering found in most metamorphic rocks

### Deposition

the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it

### Weathering

the effects of freezing and thawing, plant roots, acid, and other forces on rock

### Erosion

the process by which running water water, wind, or ice carry away bits of broken-up rock

### Compaction

the process that presses sediments together

### Cementation

the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together

### Clastic rock

a sedimentary rock formed when rock fragments are squeezed together

### Organic rock

forms where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in layers

### Chemical rock

forms when minerals dissolved in a water solution crystallize

### Rock cycle

a pattern of pathways that result from weathering and erosion, deposition, earthquakes and volcanic activity, tremendous heat and pressure, and melting

### Fossils

are the most preserved remains or traces of living things

### Mold

a hollow area in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism

### Cast

a solid copy of the shape of an organism

### Petrified fossils

are fossils in which minerals replace of an organisms, or a part such as a dinosaur bone

### Carbon film

an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock

### Trace fossils

provide evidence of the activities of ancient organisms

### Paleontologist

scientists who study fossils

### Evolution

the change in living things over time

### Extinct

no longer exists and will never live on Earth again

### Relative age

its age compared to the ages of other rocks

### Absolute age

in a rock is the number of years that have passes since the rock formed

### Law of superposition

used by geologists to determine the relative ages of sedimentary rock layers, horizontal

### Extrusion

lava that hardens on the surface and forms igneous rocks

### Intrusion

the magma cools and hardens into a mass of igneous rock

### Fault

a break in Earth's crust

### Index fossil

a fossil must be widely distributed and represent an organism that existed for a geologically short period of time

the process in which elements release particles and energy

### Half-life

in a radioactive element is the the time it takes for half of the radio-active atoms to decay

### Trilobites

index fossil ; three distinct body parts; evolved into a beatle ; 28 in fossils

### Unconformity

a gap in the geologic records

### Geological time scale

a record of the geological events and the evolution of life forms as shown in the fossil record

### Eras

the time geologist divide between Precambrian Time and the present into three long units of time

### Periods

eras that are subdivided into units of geological time

### Uniformitarianism

the key principal that guides scientists when they make inferences about Earth's past

### Continental drift

Wegener's idea that the continents slowly moved over Earth's surface

### Pangaea

according to Wegener, the the continents were joined together in a super continent, or single landmass, about 300 million years ago

### Fossil

any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock

### Mid-ocean ridges

seams formed mountain ranges that run along the middle of some ocean floors

when mid-ocean ridges continually add new material to the ocean floor

### Deep-ocean trenches

when the ocean floor plunges deep underwater trenches ; oceanic crust bends downwards (subduction)- these form

### Subduction

the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle again

### Symbiotic relationship

a relationship between two organisms

### Plates

broken pieces separated by cracks on Earth's lithosphere, called major tectonic plates

### Divergent boundary

when plates move apart, or diverge, from each other

### Convergent boundary

when plates come together or converge

### Transform boundary

when/where plates slip past each other

### Plate tectonics

a combination by scientists based on what they knew about sea-floor spreading, Earth's plates, and plate motions into a single theory

### Faults

breaks in Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other from along these boundaries

### Rift valley

where pieces of Earth's crust diverge on land, deep valleys form here

### Volcano

a mountain that forms in Earth's crust when molten material, or magma reaches the surface

### Magma

a molten mixture of rock forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle

### Lava

when magma reaches the surface

### Ring of Fire

one major belt of volcanoes

### Island arch

a string of islands from resulting volcanoes

### Hot spot

an area where material from deep within Earth's mantle rises through the crust and melts to form magma

### Magma chamber

where magma collects beneath a volcano

### Pipe

a long tube that extends from Earth's crust up through the top of the volcano, connecting the magma chamber to Earth's surface

### Vent

molten rock and gas leave the volcano through this opening

### Lava flow

spread of lava as it pours out of a vent

### Crater

bowl-shaped area that may form at the top of a volcano around the central vent

### Silica

a material found in magma that forms from the elements oxygen and silicon

### Pyroclastic flow

the mixture of hot gases, ash, cinders, and bombs that flow down the sides of a volcano when it erupts explosively

### Dormant

a sleeping volcano that scientists expect to awaken in the future and become active

### Extinct

a dead volcano that is unlikely to ever erupt again

### Caldera

the hole left when a volcano collapses

### Cinder cone

when a volcano erupts and produces ash, cinders, and bombs that build up around the vent in a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain

### Composite volcano

tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of ash alternate with layers of lava

### Shield volcano

thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and harden on top of previous layers and flow to build a wide, gently sloping volcano

### Volcanic neck

forms when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe and the surrounding rock later wears away

### Dikes

magma that forces itself across rock layers and hardens

### Sill

forms when magma that squeezes between horizontal rock layers hardens

### Batholith

mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust

### Tension

the stress force that pulls on the crust and thins rock in the middle

### Stress

is a force that acts on rock to change shape or volume

### Compression

the stress force that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

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