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napolean III

the first President of the French Republic from 10 December 1848 to 2 December 1851, then again from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852. He became the second Emperor of the French

giuseppe mazzini

Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)

pope pius IX

support for unification gave way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848-Syllabus of Errors: strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty

cavour

Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.

victor emmanuel

First King of Italy, who was originally king of Sardinia. King of a untied Italy. Takes the Piedmont from Austria

sardinia

an island in the Mediterranean west of Italy

red shirts

Garibaldi's army of 1000 red-shirted volunteers

otto von bismarck

Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)

north german confederation

Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Major step towards German unification.

franco prussian war

Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.

modernization

The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.

tsar alexander II

He was a Russian Tsar who attempted reform ("Emancipator") but his appeasement (emancipation of serfs and the establishment of Zemstvos) led to his assassination by the People's Will

zemstvo

A local coulcil of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia

Alexander III

son of Alexander II who was czar of Russia (1845-1894)

bloody sunday

1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died

october manifesto

Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.

duma

The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.

mahmud II

Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents

tanzimat

'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)

young turks

group of revolutionary and nationalistic Turks who revolted against Ottoman empire in 1908 attempting to make reforms and then sided with the central powers in WWI

reichstag

Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.

kulturkampf

(cultural struggles) An exetreme church state conflict waged by Bismark in Germany during the 1870's in response to a perceived threat to German political unity from the Roman Catholic church.

william II

This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway

social democratic party

German Party in late 1870s that were committed to a Marxist critique of capitalism and cooperation with other socialist parties internationally. Bismark saw them as threat to stability of Germany and outlawed the party, although candidates stood for election. Socialist strength steadily grew.

paris commune

Established by a group of French radical patriots who refused to give up in the Franco-Prussian War, and wanted to independantly rule Paris. Didn't want to give up Alsace-Lorraine. NA under Thiers ordered French army to crush commune, 20,000 ppl died.

dreyfus affair

A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.

peoples budget

A measure passed by the Commons of Great Britain that was vetoed by the House of Lords. Designed to increase spending on social welfare services. One of the vetoed measures would have increased spending on social welfare services. This bill did end up passing when the king threatened to create new peers that would pass it.

dual monarchy

after austria's defeat by prussia in 1866, hungarians demanded more freedom. austria responded in 1867 by forming this monarchy, also called the austria-hungary, in which hungarians shared power with austrians.

zionism

A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.

international working mens association

sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist[1] and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle

revisionism

Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.

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