Civil service examinations
The exam system was central to the traditional Chinese polity. It produces China's political, intellectual, social, and cultural elites, educating them in the Confucian orthodoxy. The examinations were held at three levels, with those who gained a top-level degree taking the plum political-bureaucratic positions; lower-level graduates served as social elites in their localities. The rate of passing was no higher than 1-3 percent
A treaty right established by the west was extraterritoriality with consular jurisdiction, by which a foreigner accused of a crime would be tried not in a Chinese court but in one presided over by the consul of his nation. The West believed Chinese law was barbaric. China had no independent profession of law
A trading system between Westerners and Chinese that was modeled on the traditional tributary system. From 1760 until the end of the Opium War, the system restricted Westerners to trading only at Canton and to living only on an island in the Pearl River. Among other things, the system specified when they could come and how long they could stay and refused them permission to enter the walled city, learn Chinese, ride in sedan chairs, or communicate directly with Chinese officials
most favored nation
Treaty of nanking promised that each country would receive every right that every other country received even if it was not specified in a particular treaty. The British used this clause to claim the right of provision for renegotiation to change their treaty in 1952
*sphere of influence
Germany was interested in establishing a Chinese naval base. They were given an opportunity to work their way into China when two German missionaries were hacked to death by a band of Chinese. In response Germany occupied the bay and Qingdao; they forced the Chinese government to lease the port and surrounding area for 99 years and allowed Germany to build two railroads and hold mining rights
*open door policy
It stated that all European nation and the U.S could trade with China. It was created to ensure that countries with spheres would not freeze the United States out of treaty ports or areas of natural resources that were within those spheres. U.S secretary of State Hay asserted that they all had obligated itself to the Open Door notes
Chinese Communist Party
Established in 1921, the party has ruled the People's republic of China since the nation's establishment in 1949. The party's first phase, as part of the 1920s united front, ended in disaster, but it restructures its base on the peasantry and defeated the Nationalist Party in the civil wars. Since 1949 it has sought economic modernization for China, trying various approaches that have consistently been accompanied by political repression.
Nationalist Party (the Guomindang)
A political party that developed from Sun Yat-sen's pre-Rebuplican period Revolutionary Alliance. In the early republic, before being outlawed by Yuan Shikai in 1913, it functioned as an open parliamentary party. In the 1920s it became a Leninist-style party, led by Sun until his death in 1925. The party's army united china in 1928 under Chiang Kai-shek. From 1928-1949 it was essentially the governing institution in China, vying almost continually with a revived Communist Party. Defeated in the civil war, the Nationalist Party and Chiang fled to Taiwan, where the party remained in total control until the late 1980s. Other parties then challenged its dominance.
Whampoa Military Academy
A military school established by the Nationalist Party in 1924. The academy's superintendent was Chiang Kai-shek. Its cadets, who were crucial in the success of the Northern Expedition, formed an increasingly important base for Chiang. This was the so-called Whampoa clique. Many Whampoa graduates also played a role in Chiang's paramilitary Blue Shirts.
1926: The CCP and GMD united under the Second United Front to combat the regional warlords in Northern China. The CCP united more with the leftist part of the GMD. The right conservative faction of the GMD original intent was to go north to secure more provinces for the Nationalist party. The goal was to reach the Yangzi River and gain South and South Central China for the GMD. Chiang Kai-shek was more closely aligned to the conservative side of the GMD and he was very concerned about eliminating the Communists. The military force behind the Northern Expedition was the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), which trained for two years and was forbbined from traditional military practices of looting and raping. Rivalries between the warlords helped hasten defeat. The most important reason for the rapid military victory was the political work that preceded and accompanied the campaign. The army's good treatment of the people helped win over the local population. Mao Zedong organized his home province of Hunan. Communist organized strikes in urban cities made it easier for the NRA to take over.
Opium War (1839-42)
This war, on the face of it fought for the British right to smuggle opium into China, might best be seen as resulting from culture clash between China and the West. It effectively ended the Canton system and led to the establishment of the system of treaty ports wherein China lost a substantial amount of sovereignty to Western nations and Japan. It might be seen as the first assault in the barrage of more than a century of Western demands on and depredation of China.
Treaty of Nanjing(1842)
The agreement between China and Great Britain that ended the Opium War. The first treaty in what became known as the unequal treaty system, it opened up four new ports at which trade could occur; in addition to the existing port of Guangzhou (Canton): Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai. The treaty ceded Hong Kong island to Great Britain, ended the Canton system, declared that a fixed tariff would be set (thus freezing China's ability to respond to foreign economic pressures), and ordered the payment of a $21 million indemnity.
(1860s-1870s)—To respond to China's deepening foreign and domestic crisis in these decades, some Chinese espoused what was called self-strengthening—the use of Western techniques to preserve the Chinese essence, or Western means to further Chinese ends. Self-strengtheners first purchased guns and ships from the West; they then began to manufacture their own ships and weapons. Later self-strengtheners established military academies, iron foundries, shipping companies, and textile mills.
First Sino-Japanese War
(1894-95)—This war, ending in their defeat by Japan, was shocking to the Chinese, who traditionally scorned the Japanese as dwarf people. It was fought over the status of Korea: China wanted to maintain Korea's tributary status; Japan wanted to bring Korea into its sphere. The clash ended with the loss of Taiwan to Japan, which also gained predominant rights in Korea.
Hundred Days' Reform
(1898)—Spearheaded by two Chinese, Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, this summer effort at institutional reform was supported by the Manchu Guangxu emperor. During the Hundred Days, there were wide-ranging reforms, all of which seemed to challenge the status quo of the empress dowager and her allies. The reform effort came to an end with a coup by the empress dowager—suggesting, according to some historians, that China was not yet ready for institutional change.
(1901)—A disastrous end to the disastrous Boxer episode. This document is often seen as marking the nadir of China's foreign affairs under the empire. Its main stipulations, signed with the eight nations that put down the Boxer Uprising, drastically curtailed Chinese sovereignty, it established a permanent foreign guard at the Legation Quarter in Beijing, mandated the destruction of key fortifications, and agreed to the stationing of foreign troops between the capital and the sea. China was also prohibited from holding its civil service examination for five years in more than forty cities. Most devastating was the indemnity that China had to pay: £67.5 million (450 million taels, or $333 million). The indemnity crippled China's already woeful economic development.
In October of 1911, a group of revolutionaries in southern China led a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty, establishing in its place the Republic of China and ending the imperial system. Yuan Shikai was offered to the first president of the new republic.
(1915)—A group of economic and political demands made by Japan on the presidential administration of Yuan Shikai. Presented in January, after Japan's successful action in ousting the Germans from Shandong Province in the first month of World War I, the demands were listed in five groups. The first four called for wide-ranging economic privileges throughout China, in Manchuria, Mongolia, Shandong, the Yangzi valley, and the southeast coast. The fifth group, which required that the Chinese hire Japanese advisers for the administration of all political, economic, and public security (police and military) issues, would have been in effect the establish ment of a Japanese protectorate of China. When Yuan signed the demands on May 7 under a Japanese ultimatum, he did not .agree to the fifth group. During the Republic, May 7 was commemorated as National Humiliation Day.
May Fourth Movement
(1915-24)—Sometimes called the Chinese Renaissance, or Chinese Enlightenment, this cultural revolution, named for the date of a political demonstration over decisions at the post-World War I Versailles Conference, called for the destruction of traditional culture, including the traditional family system and the classical language. The movement emphasized the importance of science and democracy for China's development.
(1934-35)—This was the legendary, six-thousand-mile trek of the Communists after the collapse of the Jiangxi Soviet. Pursued by the Nationalist military, of the roughly one hundred thousand who began the march, only eight thousand to nine thousand survived the trek through mountains, swamps, and other treacherous terrain. The march's experience and memory served as a central myth and psychological bulwark of the PRC regime, and its veterans provided leadership of the party into the late 1990s.
(1931-1934) Formed in 1931 at a time when the Nationalists ruled most of china, this soviet was a communist enclave in Jiangxi Province. Under the general direction of Mao Zedong, the soviet organized the first sustained class struggle-land reform movement, but the policies had to be reined in when they antagonized too many people. A marriage law was announced that called for free marriage choice, outlawed arranged marriages, and made divorce simple. The soviet also worked to strengthen the Red Army. Besieged by Nationalist forces from 1931 on, it collapsed in 1934 in the defeat leading to the Long March.
Manchukuo was a historical homeland of the manchus who founded the Qing empire. It was seized by Japan in 1932 and abolished in 1945 after World War II. finally it was transferred to Chinese in 1946
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
(1937) Japanese troop maneuvers on the night of July 7 near this railroad bridge ten miles west of Beijing led to the disappearance of a Japanese soldier. Assuming he had been captured by the Chinese, Japanese troops attacked the Chinese position. The skirmish was isolated, but neither side could afford to back down politically; it thus became the first battle of the Sino-Japanese war
On 12 December 1936, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Kuomintang was suddenly arrested and kidnapped by Marshal Zhang Xueliang, a former warlord of Manchuria, then Japan occupied Manchukuo. The incident led the Nationalists and the Communists to make peace so that the two could form a united front against the increasing threat posed by Japan.
**Second Sino-Japanese War
From 1937-1938 Japan forcefully attacked China. In 1939-1944 Japan was putting the heat on Chiang who used attrition and scorched earth techniques; he was under heavy U.S. aid. Chiang flooded the Yellow River to stop the Japanese. Japan continuously attacked to try to end the war a soon as possible, since the Japanese army was stretched so thin. The plan was to terrorize into surrender. The Rape of Nanking took place in 1937 and was mass murder and war rape which became a big deal later. Japan surrenders in 1945. Their loss was due to their military engagement with the U.S.
(1866-1925)—Founder of the Nationalist Party, Sun was trained as a medical doctor in Hong Kong. In his twenties he became involved with anti-Manchu activities. An aborted revolt in 1895 was the start of his revolutionary career. In 1905, he organized the Revolutionary Alliance, the first revolutionary organization to not only set forth anti-Manchuism but also promise a republic and action to enhance the people's livelihood. On an around-the-world fund-raising trip when the 1911 revolution broke out, he concurred with others that Yuan Shikai should become president of the new republic. Then Yuan's authoritarianism brought the 1913 rebellion; Sun was exiled to Japan. Sun's agreement in the early 1920s to accept Comintern help in the reorganization of the Guomindang and the establishment of a party army gave new life to the revolutionary movement. His death from cancer at a moment when his goals seemed near attainment helped to transform him into a symbol of patriotism—the father of his country. His Three People's Principles became the central ideology of the Nationalist Party.
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)
(1888-1975)—A native of Zhejiang Province, Chiang studied at military schools in China and Japan. Following military action in the 1911 revolution, he became closely associated with Ch'en Ch'i-mei. After Ch'en's assassination in May 1916, Chiang remained in Shanghai. He was sent by Sun Yat-sen in 1923 to the Soviet Union for talks. Named commandant of the Nationalist Party's new military academy at Whampoa, he began to build substantial power and to side increasingly with the party's right wing. He commanded the Northern Expedition (1926-28) and became president of the Republic of China, chair of the party, and commander-in-chief of the army in 1928. Challenged in the 1930s in party and government by residual warlords, Communists, and the Japanese, he finally agreed to join the Communists in a united front against the Japanese in late 1936. During the 1937-45 war, his government was based in Chongqing. When civil war raged from 1947 to 1949, Chiang's was a losing cause: having failed to deal with an array of desperate domestic problems, he lost the civil war to the Communists. He fled to Taiwan, where he retained his posts until his death, modernizing the island but all the while enforcing martial law and excluding Taiwanese from his government.
Cixi, the empress dowager
Born in 1961, Empress Dowager was one of the most influential people in China's history. She served as regent for her son and her nephew and when she finally retired from power she continued to be involved in decision making. She staged a coup d'etat to take power from Yuan Shikai and started a war that ended badly for China. She spent a year exiled in Xi'an where she became less of a conservative and more of a leading reformer. She altered the civil service exam to include knowledge of foreign governments. In 1907 she announced that she was establishing a polity where all questions of government would be considered by a popular assembly but died in 1908 before she could do so.
(1859-1916)—Failing twice to pass the juren examination, Yuan purchased an administrative title and received a post at a military head quarters through his father's connections. Through his record and ties to Li Hongzhang, he became resident-general in Korea from 1885 to 1894 and founder of the New Army (later called the Beiyang Army) in the first years of the twentieth century. He succeeded Li Hongzhang as governor-general of Zhili Province in 1901. Ousted from his positions by Manchu regents in 1908, he emerged from the revolution of 1911 as the first president of the Republic of China. His vision focused on a centralized regime that could give coherent direction to the new China. He tended to authoritarianism: he abolished political parties and the self-government bodies that had been formed in the late Qing-early Republic. In the end, he was infatuated with the old model of the imperial state; he died in the middle of a rebellion begun against him after he tried to reestablish the monarchy. On his death, former Beiyang subordinates plunged China into the period of warlordism.
An official who was appointed imperial commissioner
He mobilized gentry and local officials to name opium dealers and demanded that foreigners turn over their opium stocks
Attempted to shame Britain out of smuggling opium to China
Eventually got Britain to deliver over 21,000 chests and flushed it to sea which the British saw as cause for war
The Daoguang emperor was infuriated and sent Lin into exile in Turkestan for four years
Lin took strong immediate action against hong merchants and western traders
*Liang Qichao , "Renewing the people"
Liang believed a people as a nation would become an organic group with a consciousness of its own identity, actively participating in in the determination of its national destiny in a world of many contending peoples. He saw a need for corporate organization, an educational system and communication media, bridging the gap between educated elite and illiterate masses
Sun Yat-sen, "The Three People's Principles"
The basic ideology of the Guomindang set forth by Sun Yat-sen. The principles are nationalism, democracy, and, somewhat nebulously, "people's livelihood."
A shengyuan degree holder (1895), Chen spent two periods of study in Japan and one in France. In 1915, he founded and edited the most celebrated periodical in modern Chinese history, New Youth (Qingnian zazhi), which championed the development of a new culture. He served as dean of the College of Letters at Beijing University from 1917 to 1919, influencing many students and intellectuals in the cultural revolution known as the May Fourth Movement. He helped found the Chinese Communist Party and was unanimously elected secretary-general of the party, a post he held until 1927. With the collapse of the united front in that year, Chen was replaced by Qu Qiubai. Though he briefly remained an important voice in the party, he was formally expelled in 1930 for opposing the Comintern line. He organized and led a Trotskyite opposition group to the CCP from 1930 to 1932, when he was arrested by the Guomindang government and charged with "endangering the republic." Tried and sentenced to fifteen years in prison, he was paroled in 1937. He died lonely and largely forgotten.
Hu Shi, "A preliminary discussion of literary reform"
(1891-1962)—Hu received his undergraduate degree from Cornell University, graduating Phi Beta Kappa; he received his Ph.D. in 1917 from Columbia University, a student of John Dewey. That same year, he became professor of philosophy at Beijing University. He became a leader in the effort to replace the system of writing Chinese in its classical form with the vernacular. When the New Culture movement split over political issues, Hu championed the idea that educational and cultural reform must precede political change; he also argued the pragmatist's position that change must come incrementally in evolutionary fashion, not with the sweeping changes of some ism. In 1931, he became dean of the College of Arts at Beijing University; he held that post until 1937. He prided himself on being a "no party, no faction" intellectual, steering clear of involvement in either party. He served as Chinese ambassador to the United States from 1938 to 1942, remaining in the United States until 1946 and returning two years later. In 1958, he assumed the presidency of Academia Sinica in Taiwan, where he died four years later of a heart attack.
*Mao Zedong, "Report on an investigation of the Hunan peasant movement"
Came to be seen as a document of the greatest significance to the development of the revolution. Mao conducted an investigation on the conditions in Xiangtan, Xiangxiang, Hengshan, Liling, and Changsha. He believed that erroneous measures taken by the revolutionary authorities concerning the peasant movement must be changed
Zhang was a Manchurian warlord and opium addict that led 100,000 of his men into North China to dominate the region that Chiang was trying to take over. He gave his allegiance to Chiang and was named commander of the Northeastern Frontier army. Zhang refused to negotiate the railroad disputes that resulted. He was the main commander of Chiangs party against communists. He attacked Chiangs headquarters after Chiang relieved Zhang from his command and prevented Chiang from his goal of exterminating the communists