Three step writing process
Planning, Writing, and Completing your message
The stage during which you step back to see whether you have expressed your idea?
The primary Audience for your message is made up of?
The key decision makers
The chief advantage of oral communication is?
opportunity for immediate feedback
In part media richness refers to?
A medium's ability to facilitate feedback
The richest communication medium
Face to face conversation
For persuasive messages, the best approach is to?
Emphasize how your audience will benefit
A euphemism is a word or phrase that is?
A milder term for one with a negotive connotations
The most common tone for a business message is?
Words such as nevertheless, however, and therefore?
Are useful for making transitions
The main task in completing a business message consist of?
revising, proofreading, and producing
When reviewing your document for content, you should be concerned with?
The accuracy and relevance of the information
For general business messages, your writing should be geared toward readers at the?
8th to 11th grage level
Using space in a document?
Justified type is type that?
Set flush on the left and flush on the right
When making a routine request, you begin with?
A clear statement of the main idea or request
When making a request, you should?
Assume the reader will comply with your request
In the body of a request message, you?
Give details and justify your request
When requesting an adjustment, your closing should usually?
Request a specific action
Routine, Positive messages should do all the following
Communicate the good news, provide all required details, and leave your reader with a good impression
In a positive message, the main idea is presented?
Right at the beginning of the letter
When offering compliments in a goodwill message; you should?
Be sure to back them up with key points
when using the direct approach to deliver bad news; you?
Must still work to end with a positive statemnet
a letter rejecting a job applicant should?
Clearly state why he or she was not selected
To overcome audience resistance to your message...
present all sides of the issue before making before making the case for your position
The Letter format in which all parts begin at the left margin called?
When selecting typefaces for a business document?
Avoid using more than two typefaces on a page
The number of major points in your message?
should be three or four, regardless of how ling th mesage is
When revising a document?
First read through it quickly to evaluate overall effectiveness
If you face a skeptical audience, try to?
introduce your conclusions and recommendations gradually
When preparing a message for a large, diverse audience you must?
Look for the common denominators that tie the group together
For effective document design?
Balance the space devoted to text, artwork and white space
Your goal in writing persuasive messages is to?
Get the audience to take a specific action
When writing a claim letter, the best way to begin is by?
Stating the problem clearly and specifically
When making a routine request; you begin with?
statement of the main idea or request
the purpose of the interest section of a persuasive message is to?
A good opening for a bad-news message would be?
This letter is in reply to your application
In the closing of a bad-news message, you?
build good will by ending on a positive note
When compared to routine positive messages, persuasive messages are usually?
AIDA stands for
Attention, interest, desire, and action
Use a gradual approach and plenty of evidence
When preparing a message for a skeptical audience
You need to provide more information in your message if? pg 94
Giving incorrect information
To gauge the quality of the information you provide in your messages, check to ensure that the information is accurate, ethical and pertinent.
Channels for reaching a dispersed audience
is a message formalilty example printed memo letter
Earn respect from your audience by?
demonstrating honesty and integrity will earn you the respect of your audience.
Criticizing and correcting
Don't dwell on the other persons mistakes. Avoid referring to failures, problems, or shortcomings. Focus instead on what the audience members can do to improve.
Establishing credibility with your audience
a measure of your believability, based on how reliable you are and how much trust you evoke in others
Emphasize key points by?
using sentence style to emphasize key thoughts. by giving important points the most space. using extra words to describe subject or point.
Basic elements of a typical paragraph
A typical paragraph contains 3 basic elements; a topic sentence, support sentences that develop the topic, and transitional words and phrases.
Revising a document
When you began your revision process focus your attention on content, organization,style and tone
Reviewing your document for content
To evaluate the content of your message answer the following questions;
1-Is the information accurate
2-Is the information relevant to the audience
3-Is there enough information to satisfy the readers needs
4-Is there a good balance between general information (giving readers enough background info to appreciate the message) And specific info (Giving readers the details they need to understand the message)
the optimum paragraph length is short to medium in most cases,Short paragraphs are easier to read and more inviting writing style than longer ones.
Effective document design
Pay close attention to the following design elements
1-Consistency (type-face, type size, & space)
3-Restraint (strive for simplicity in design)
4-Details (paying attention to detail)
Is the quality inspection stage for documents, look for two type of problems (1) undetected mistakes from the writing, design,and layout stages. (2) mistakes that crept in during production.
Closing a direct request
Close your message with 3 important elements;
1-a request for a specific action
2-Information about how you can be reached
3-An expression of appreciation
Beginning and closing a claim letter
In claim letters,explain the problem and give details, provide backup information, request specific action by clearly stating what you expect as a fair settlement or ask the reader to propose a fair adjustment.
Writing a letter of recommendation
your goal is to convince readers that the person being recommended has the characteristics necessary for the job...a successful recommendation letter contains relevant details such as;
1-The candidates full name
2-The position or other objective the candidate is seeking
3-The nature of your reationship with the candidate
4-An indication of whether youre answering a request from the person or taking the initiative to write.
5-A comparison of this candidates potential with that of his or her peers; example (class ranking of top 10%)
6-Your overall evaluation of the candidates suitability for the opportunity.
Composing a negative message
five goals of negative messages
1-give the bad news
2-ensure acceptance of the bad news
3-maintain readers GOODWILL
4-maintain organizrion good image
5-minimize or eliminate future correspondence on the matter, as appropriate.
a well written buffer establishes common ground with the reader;and validates the concerns that prompted the orignal request, without promising a positive answer.
Reasons section of a bad-news message
as you lay out your reasons; guide your readers response by starting with the most positive points first and moving foward to increasingly negative ones. Provide enough details for the audience to understand your reasoning reasonsing
Refer to human resources;
Negative performance review
is to improve employee performance by; first emphasizing and and clarifying job requirements, and giving employees feedback on their efforts toward fulfilling those requirements; and guiding efforts by developing a plan of action which includes rewards and opportunities. But documentation of performance problems can also protect a company from being sued for unlawful termination.
Persuasion is the attempt to change someone attitude, beliefs or actions;
overcoming audience resistance
The best way to overcome resistance is to anticipate as many objections as you can and address them in your message before your audience can even bring them up.
Marketing or sales messages
use the same techniques as other persuasive messages with the added emphasis of encouraging someone to participate in a commercial transaction.
Sequence for the standard parts of a letter
is a way of arranging all the basic letter parts; there are 3 major letter formats used;
1-Block format-is each letter part begins at the left margin, the main advantage is quick and efficient preparation.
2-Modified block format-Same as block except that the date, complimentary close, and signature block start near the center of page; this format mix preparation speed w/traditional placement of letter parts; looks more balanced
3-Simplified format- Instead of using salutation, this format often weaves the reader's name into the first line or two of the body and oftern incudes a subject line in capital letters. Format is convienient when you don't know the readers name, but its very impersonal
Headings for a memo
title in Caps such as MEMO centered at the top of the page or aligned with the left margin; also include the words To, From, Date, & Subject, followed by the appropriate information with a blank line shown in between.