Any indication that learning has persisted over time
Three Box (Information Processing) Model
Proposes the three stages that information passes through before it is stored. Sensory, Short Term, Long Term.
Split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information. Information is lost because it is not encoded.
A split-second photograph of a scene
3-4 second memory for sounds
Working memory. Memories you are currently working with and are aware of in consciousness. Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten. Events encoded as visual codes, acoustic codes, or semantic codes (sense of meaning of event). Usually fade within 10-30 seconds. Limited to 7 items.
We encode what we are attending to or what is more important to us. Determines which sensory messages get encoded.
Process in which items are grouped together to facilitate memorization.
Memory aids. Example of chunking.
Repetition. A method of retaining information in the short-term memory.
Permanent storage. Unlimited capacity. Possible for memories to decay or fade.
Memories of specific events. Stored in sequence.
General knowledge of the world, stored as facts, meanings, or categories
Memories of skills and how to perform them.
Explicit (Declarative) Memories
Conscious memories of facts or events we actively tried to remember
Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memories
Unintentional memories that we might not even realize we have.
Eidetic (Photographic) Memory
the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure
Levels of Processing Model
Explains why we remember what we do by examining how deeply the memory was processed of thought about
Deeply (Elaboratively) Processed
Spending much time studying the context or info. More likely to remember the info for a long period of time
Shallowly (Maintenance) Processed
Ex. reciting a fact several times before a test quickly. Easily forgettable.
Getting information out of memory so we can use it
Process of matching a current event or fact with one already in memory
Retrieving a memory with an external cue.
Predicts that we're more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list
Demonstrated by our ability to recall the items at the end of a list
Serial Position Effect
When recall of a list is affected by the order of the items
Temporary inability to remember information.
Semantic Network Theory
Our brain might form new memories by connecting their meaning and context with meanings already in memory
Importance of the event caused us to encode the context surrounding the event
Greater likelihood of recalling an item when our mood matched the mood we were in when the event happened
Phenomenon of recalling events encoded while in particular states of consciousness.
Individuals claim to suddenly remember events they have repressed for years
Constructed (reconstructed) memory
Can report false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occurred
it will take less time to relearn material we previously encoded, even if we have "forgotten" what we learned previously
Other information in memory competes with what you're trying to recall.
Learning new information interferes with the recall of older information
Older information learned previously interferes with the recall of information learned more recently
Damage to the hippocampus. Cannot encode new memories.
Neurons strengthen connections between each other. Through repeated firings, neuron becomes more sensitive to the messages from the sending neurons. Might be related to connections we make in our long term memory
Smallest unit of sound in a language.
Smallest unit of meaningful sound.
Order of words spoken
natural unconscious process of language development in humans that occurs without instruction, but needs exposure
Time during which babies speak in single words
Toddlers combine words into simple commands
Misapplication of grammar rules
Language Acquisition Device
Born with this. Causes children learn language rapidly
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Language might control and in some ways limit thinking
Similar to schemata. Cognitive rules applied to stimuli from our environment that allow us to categorize and think about the objects, people, and ideas we encounter.
What we think is the most typical example of a particular concept
Mental pictures we create in our minds from the outside world
Rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula
Rule of thumb. Generally true that we can use to make a judgment about a situation
Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations
Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her hand
Illogical conclusions in order to confirm preexisting beliefs
Tendency to maintain a belief even after evidence has been contradicted
Tendency to fall into established thought patterns
Inability to see a new use for an object
Tend to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true
The way a problem is presented
Thinking pointed toward one solution
Thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question. More closely associated with creativity.
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