Biology DNA and RNA

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What clues did bacterial transformation yield about the gene?

The nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits genetic information from one generation of bacteria to the next.

Transformation

(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

What role did bacterial viruses play in identifying genetic material?

DNA is the genetic material of all living things

Bacteriophage

a virus that infects bacteria

What is the role of DNA in heredity?

The DNA that makes up genes must be capable of storing, copying, and transmitting the genetic information in a cell.

What are the chemical components of DNA?

DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds

Base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?

DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA

Replication

Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a copying process

DNA polymerase

the principal enzyme involved in DNA replication

Telomeres

DNA at the tips of chromosomes

How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

Replication in prokaryotic cells starts a single point and proceeds in two directions until all of the chromosome is copied. In eukaryotic cells, replication begins at a larger, varied amount of places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is all copied.

mRNA

The RNA that carry copies of the instructions

rRNA

Subunits of a Ribosome

tRNA

The molecule that transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the coded messages of mRNA

Transcription

Segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules

RNA polymerase

binds DNA during transcription and separates the DNA strands

Promoters

Regions of DNA that have specific base sequences

Introns

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

Exons

expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

Polypeptides

Long chains of amino acids

Genetic code

the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells

Codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

Translation

The decoding of mRNA message into a protein

Anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

Mutations

heritable changes in genetic information

Point mutations

changes in a DNA sequence caused by substitution of one nucleotide for another

Frameshift mutations

Types of mutations that result from insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide into the normal DNA sequence.

Mutagens

A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.

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