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Psychology in Action Professor Davis Edison State College Spring 2012

A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes as a result of practice or experience is called _____.

learning

The learning of an association between an environmental stimulus and a behavioral response is known as _____.

conditioning

If a mother acts upset and fearful when exposed to a particular ethnic group, it is likely that her child will learn to be upset when exposed to the same ethnic group. This is an example of how prejudice is acquired through _____.

operant conditioning

_____ conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.

Classical

Any stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning is a(n) _____.

unconditioned stimulus

In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments, the _____ was the neutral stimulus, the _____ was the stimulus that would elicit a reflex, and _____ was the reflexive response.

bell; meat powder; salivation

A(n) _____ is an unlearned reaction evoked by a stimulus without any learning.

unconditioned response

A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest is called _____.

a neutral stimulus

A previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, produces a conditioned response is now called a(n) _____.

conditioned stimulus

Ten days in a row Frank felt a static electric shock when he kissed his wife on the living room carpet. Now he feels mildly anxious whenever he approaches his wife to kiss her. In classical conditioning, his wife was a(n) _____ stimulus ten days ago, and has now become a(n) _____ stimulus.

neutral; conditioned

Which of the following develops gradually during the course of conditioning?
A) UCS
B) CS
C) CR
D) UCR

B) CS

A(n) _____ is a learned reaction to a previously neutral stimulus due to repeated pairings.

conditioned response

A Vietnam veteran experiences an intense emotional reaction to a clap of thunder. His emotional response is an example of a(n) _____.

CR

Which of the following is an example of the use of classical conditioning in everyday life?
A) Treating alcoholism with a drug that causes nausea when alcohol is consumed
B) The use of seductive women to sell cars to men
C) Politicians learn that associating themselves with home, family, babies, and the American flag
D) all of these options

D) all of these options

In John Watson's demonstration of classical conditioning with little Albert, the unconditioned STIMULUS was _____.

a loud noise

A conditioned emotional response is an emotion that is _____.

evoked by a previously neutral stimulus

Wartime propaganda often depicts the enemy as ugly, cruel, and somewhat less than human. This type of propaganda creates _____ toward the enemy.

a negative conditioned emotional response

Most phobias are explained by _____.

classical conditioning

Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences is called _____.

operant conditioning

Consequences are a critical element in _____ conditioning.

operant

An event that increases the probability that a response will be repeated is called _____.

reinforcement

An event that decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeated is called _____.

punishment

Generally, classical conditioning is _____; operant conditioning is _____.

passive; active

Reinforcement and punishment are defined in terms of _____.

whether they increase or decrease responses that follow

Which of the following is an example of Thorndike's law of effect?
A) A chicken keeps poking a bar with its beak even though it is repeatedly shocked immediately afterwards.
B) A teenage driver stops speeding when his father makes him start paying for his own speeding tickets.
C) A ball keeps rolling downhill because of the pull of gravity.
D) A cat keeps clawing the sofa despite being squirted with water every time it does this.

A teenage driver stops speeding when his father makes him start paying for his own speeding tickets.

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A) Pavlov: classical conditioning
B) Thorndike: law of effect
C) Skinner: reinforcement
D) all of these options are correctly matched

D) all of these options are correctly matched

Eli's grandma gives him a Tootsie Roll every time she visits. After enough times of receiving a Tootsie Roll, Eli's mouth begins to water when he sees his grandma arriving. In this example of classical conditioning, the Tootsie Roll is the __________________, and the mouthwatering reaction is the __________________________.

conditioned stimulus; conditioned response

Your dog is begging for food while you eat dinner. Your Mother gives him a morsel from her plate, and he stops barking. In this situation, your dog has been _____________, and you Mother has been ________________.

positively reinforced; negatively reinforced

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