PSY 2012 - Chapter 7 Quiz

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Psychology in Action Professor Davis Edison State College Spring 2012

This is an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.

memory

The organization and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories is called _____.

constructive process

With regard to memory, the process of retaining neurally coded information over time is known as _____.

storage

The three steps in memory processing are _____.

encoding, storage, retrieval

_______ attention improves encoding whereas ______ attention interferes with encoding.

selective; divided

In a computer model of memory, _____ would happen at the keyboard, _____ on the monitor, and _____ on the hard drive.

encoding, retrieval, storage

The _____ approach suggests that memory results from connections among multiple simultaneous networks.

parallel distributed processing

In the three-stage memory model, which of the following is the CORRECT memory pathway?
A. sensory memory - STM - LTM
B. STM - LTM - perceptual memory
C. sensory memory - perceptual memory - working memory
D. sensory memory - STM - LTM - perceptual memory

A. sensory memory - STM - LTM

In sensory memory, the approximate duration of a visual image is about _____, and the approximate duration of auditory echoic memory is up to _____.

1/2 second; 2-4 seconds

The memory system that stores sensory information while it "decides" whether to send it on to LTM is called _____ memory in the traditional memory model.

short-term

The process of repeating information over and over to maintain it in short-term memory is called _____.

maintenance rehearsal

Short-term memory receives information from _____ memory.

sensory and long-term

Of the three memory stages, _____ has the greatest capacity, and _____ has the longest duration.

long-term memory; LTM

The two major systems of long-term memory are _____.

explicit and implicit

This is the subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information, and personal life experiences

explicit/declarative memory

Knowledge of facts and the relationships between them is called _____ memory, whereas knowledge of events is called _____ memory.

semantic; episodic

When you blow dry your hair in the morning, you are using _____.

procedural memory

According to the serial position effect, to increase the chance that you will be remembered by your host when introduced at a crowded party, you should try to be introduced _____.

either first or last

Ebbinghaus found that he could remember _____ percent of a list of nonsense syllables an hour after learning the list perfectly, _____ percent a day later, and _____ percent a week later.

44; 35; 21

Relearning is the process of learning material _____, which usually takes _____ time than original learning.

a second time; less

_____ theory suggests that memory is like any other biological process that deteriorates over time.

Decay

_____ theory suggests that forgetting is due to a momentary inability to recall permanently stored information due to interference, faulty cues, or emotional states.

Retrieval failure

_____ interference occurs when new information interferes with the recall of old information.

Retroactive

Distributed practice is a learning technique in which _____.

learning sessions alternate with non-learning rest periods

Cramming is another term for _____, which is an inefficient form of studying.

massed practice

Long-term potentiation is a result of _____.
A. repeated practice that builds neural pathways
B. an increase in the number of dendrite connections with other neurons
C. an increase in the release of neurotransmitters
D. all of these options

D. all of these options

Research on humans and lab animals suggests that injections of _____ and stimulation of _____ increases the encoding and storage of new information.

epinephrine and cortisol; the amygdala

This is a vivid memory of circumstances associated with strongly emotional or surprise events that triggers hormone release.

flashbulb memory

The leading cause of neurological disorders (including memory loss) among Americans between the ages of 15 and 25 is ________.

traumatic brain injury

Loss of memory as a result of brain injury or trauma is called _____.

amnesia

Loss of memory for events before an injury is called _____ amnesia.

retrograde

Anterograde amnesia is the inability to _____ after an injury.

form new memories

A progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss that occurs most commonly in the elderly is called _____.

Alzheimer's disease

June-bug has Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following is she MOST likely to forget?
A. why her sisters added the "bug" to her name when they were kids
B. how to tie her shoes
C. how to shift gears in her Mercedes
D. all of these options

why her sisters added the "bug" to her name when they were kids

Your textbook author summarizes specific study tips compiled from memory research. These tips include all the following EXCEPT _____.
A. reduce interference
B. employ massed practice
C. use mnemonics
D. review information by sometimes starting in the middle sections of a chapter

B. employ massed practice

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