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Friedrich Nietzsche

German philosopher of the 19th century. He was a critic of the Enlightened philosophies of progress and reason. He claimed that Christianity was religion that created a slave mentality that glorifies weakness and mediocrity. Claimed that "God is Dead". Also believed that a few "supermen" would rise up to reorder the world.

Henri Bergson

A French philosophy professor who was a critic of Enlightenment ideas of progressa nd rationale. He said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking.

Georges Sorel

(1847-1922) the French philosopher who founded syndicalism. He rejected the Marxist notion of inevitable change and instead advocated the direct action of the proletariat to bring about the destruction of the bourgeoisie. In Reflections on Violence, in proclaimed that violence was good, no matter the end.

syndicalism

A radical political movement that advocated bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions. Supporters endorsed direct actions such as strikes and sabotage in setting up this manifestation of anarchism.

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation. He claimed that people were greedy and irrational beings controlled by sexual, agreesive and pleasure seeking drives. He founded psychoanalysis.

ID

The unconscious part of personaility that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. It makes people greedy, irrational creatures.

Ego

The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

Superego

The part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

Paul Valery'

French poet and critic who expressed the state of uncertainty after WWI. He spoke of the "crisis of mind" and noted that Europe was looking at its future w/ dark foreboding. He aw a "cruelly injured mind" besieged by doubts and suffering from anxieties

logical empiricism

A philosophical movement developed after WWI that revolted against established certainties in philosophy that rejected most of the concerns of traditional philosophy from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness as unprovable nonsense. Claimed only experience was worth analyzing.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

An Austrian author and thinker of th post- WWI period who claimed that philosophy was only the logical clarification of thoughts. He claimed that man could not determine the sense of God, morality, and freedom because they could not be tested.

Vienna Circle

A group of philosophers in Austria during the early part of the twentieth century. They took the position that all that could not be verified was nonsense.

Oswald Spengler

An anti- utopina author of the post WWI period who wrote THE DECLINE OF THE WEST. He claimed that cultures were in cycles of growth and decline and that western culture would soon be replaced by Asian culture.

T. S. Eliot

An anti- Utopian author of post- war perios who was also seen as a Christian existentialist. In the poem THE WASTELAND, he depicts a world of growing desolation.

Franz Kafka

A Czech born author whose writing writing portrayed helpless individuals destroyed by inexplicably hostile/surreal forces of the 20th century. He wrote "The Trial" (1925), "The Castle" (1926), and "The Metamorphosis" (1915).

Erich Maria Remarque

German WWI veteran and author of "All Quiet on the Western Front" written in 1929. He describes a generation of young men destroyed by the war.

existentialism

A philosophy that took root in post WWII Europe based on the idea that life has no inherent meaning, but that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions.

Jean- Paul Sartre

A French existentialist philosopher of teh post WWII era who said that life has no real meaning and that people just exist, they just "turned up on the scene".

Albert Camus

A French existentialist writer of the post WWII era who said that individuals had to find meaning to life by taking action against those things with which they disagree. He also said these actions were derived from personal choices that are independent from religion or political ideology.

George Orwell

Famous dystopian author who wrote "Animal Farm" and "1984" , both which were critical of the communist totalitarin state.

Ayn Rand

US writer (born in Russia) noted for her polemical novels and political conservativism. Wrote WE THE LIVING, ANTHEM, and THE FOUNTAINHEAD.

New Physics

Ideas in phsyics popularized after WWI that challengd long held ideas of natural laws created bythe likes of Newton.

Max Planck

German physicist that developed quantum physics. He theorized that matter and energy might be different forms of teh same thing. Also proved that subatomic energy was released from particles.

Albert Einstein

German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity. He claimed matter and energy are interchangeable and that even a particle of matter contains enormous levels of potential energy. he said that time and space were all relative terms.

Werner Heisenberg

German physicist who in 1929 developed .principle of uncertainty. He said it is impossible to know the position and speed ofan individual election, therefore it is impossible to predict its behavior. This changed Newton's laws to mere probabilities.

Bauhaus Movement

A German architectural movement of post WWI that emphasized functional design with glass and iron components.

Pablo Picasso

A Spanish artist who is seen as the most important artist of 20th century. He devloped the style of cubism.

Cubism

An artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes. Developed in Europe in the early 20th century.

Wassily Kadinsky

Non-representational artist that sought to evoke emotion through non-figural painting. He is seen as a developer of non- representational art.

Guernica

Masterpiece painting of Picasso that depicts anguish of people in town destroyed by German in teh Spanish Civil War.

Dadaism

A new artistic movement during the 1920's and 1930's that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior, delighting in outrageous conduct. It was focused on the cynicism and ridicule engendered by the collapse of moral values during WWI.

Marcel Duchamp

French painter who became a prominent leader of Dadaism. He created shocking pieces with his readymade or found objects, such as a urinal, or desecrating masterpiece works.

Salvador Dali

Spanish surrealist painter who painted fantastic worlds of wild reams and complex symbols, where watches melted and giant metronomes beat time in precisely drawn but impossible alien landscapes.

Igor Stravinsky

Russian composer whose use of non-traditional harmonies and dissonant sounds revolutionized modern music. Two important works are Rite of Spring and Firebird.

Arnold Schonberg

A Viennese composer who led modern composer in abandoning traditional harmony and tonality. He composed 12 tone music of the 1920's that arranged all 12 notes of the scale in an abstract, mathematical pattern, or "tow Row". This was the equivalent of non representational art in music.

Charlie Chaplin

ritish actor who moved to Hollywood and became the most popular figure in early 20th century cinema.

Guglielmo Marconi

Developer of the radio.

Briish Broadcasting Corporation

An example of state ownership of radio waves in the early 20th century.

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