The Great War:
Another name for World War I, used by Europeans until the advent of World
Kaiser Wilhelm II:
German emperor in World War I; his aggressive foreign policy is often
blamed for starting the war.
Leópold Sédar Senghor: (1906 - 2001)
One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude
literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a
hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul;
negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.
Leon Pinsker: (1821 - 1891)
European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.
Sherif of Mecca from 1908 to 1917; used British promise of independence to convince
Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain's failure to keep
promise; died 1931.
Military and political alliance formed before World War I to counter moves by
potential rivals England, France, and Russia; consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Military and political alliance formed before World War I by England, France,
and Russia; created to challenge moves made by the Triple Alliance.
Placed restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to
offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919.
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level
and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by
legislative bodies with substantial numbers of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
League of Nations:
International diplomatic and peace organization created with the Treaty of
Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the
United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.
Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a
strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive
foreign policy leading to World War II; responsible for attempted genocide of European Jews.
The Great Powers:
The industrialized, colonizing nations of Europe before World War I;
includes England, France, Germany, Russia, and Italy; their rivalries led to the war.
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian
population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia
and the Middle East.
Literary movement in France that argued precolonial African societies were superior
in many ways to European colonial societies in Africa; writers included L.S. Senghor, Leon
Damas, and Aime Cesaire.
Movement begun in the 1920s to promote African nationalism and unity; did
much to arouse anticolonial sentiment.
Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. DuBois:
Americans who promoted African nationalism and unity.
Influential British colonial administrator who predicted the rise of African
Gamal Abdel Nasser:
Led a military coup in Egypt in 1952; ruled until 1970; established
himself as a major Arab force in the Middle East.
Liberal Constitutionalist Party; Labor Party:
Rivals to Egypt's Wafd Party; once in control of
their own government, these three parties did little to help the peasantry.
Name used by countries fighting the Central Powers; major members were
Britain, France, Russia, and Italy; later in the war, the United States and Japan joined their cause.
World Zionist Organization:
Formed by Herzl and other prominent European Jewish leaders to
promote Jewish migration to Palestine in advance of the creation of a Zionist state in Palestine.
French officer and Jew who was falsely accused of spying for Germany in the
late 19th century; his mistreatment spurred Herzl and other Zionists to increase their call for a
Prominent journalist who led the cause of Zionism in the late 19th century.
Violent assaults against Jewish communities, especially in Russia and Romania in the
latter half of the 19th century.
British foreign secretary who pledged in a declaration the establishment of a
Jewish homeland in Palestine, which encouraged Jewish nationalists and angered Arabs.
Supporters of Jewish nationalism, especially a creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.
Hussein, Sherif of Morocco:
Convinced Arab leaders to support the French and British during
the war because of their pledges of Arab independence.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire were the chief powers at
war with the Allies.
Ataturk (a.k.a. Mustafa Kemal):
Postwar leader of Turkey who launched sweeping reforms,
including women's suffrage and a Latin-based alphabet.
The Treaty of Versailles established British or French control over territories
formerly held by Germany and the Ottoman Empire; especially important in regard to Arab areas
after the war.
Egyptian village where British violence came to represent the heavy-handed nature
of colonial rule and united nationalists in their cause.
Prosperous Egyptian families who made up the middle class; leaders of the Egyptian
nationalist movement came largely from this group.