What is Milgram's study about?
Who was Mr.Wallace?
An actor which the participants thought was another participant like themselves.
What sample was done to get the participants?
A volunteer sample - newspaper
Describe what the participants were asked to do in the study
They had to "electrocute" Mr.Wallace if he answered wrongly (the learner) to one of the word pairs given, the shock would increase all the way up to 450 V. The participant was the teacher.
If a participant didn't want to continue what did the experimenter have to do?
They had prods to use to get them to obey and continue with the experiment such as "you have no other choice you must go on"
What were the original results?
Everybody went to 300V and 65% of participants went up to 450V.
What were the original qualitative results?
People showing obvious signs of stress - clenching fists and holding head in hands, digging nails into palms and sweating and somebody actually had a fit showing obvious signs of stress so they were taking it seriously
What are the variations of Milgram's study
Vocal feedback, could hear actor shouting / clothing, experimenter wearing casual clothes / change of venue to run-down offices / 2 other participant actors that opted out / experimenter on the phone
Where was there least obedience?
When there were 2 other teachers that backed out of the experiment
Strengths of ethics
Consent (volunteer sample)
3/4 of people had learnt something of personal importance, only 1% said they felt negatively
Weakness' of ethics
not informed consent
Totally deceived the participants
Not really confidential
Not protecting participants
What is internal validity?
Whether things inside of a study turned out how they should have done and did people believe it was real?
Good internal validity?
Body language - stress - sweating
Participants genuinely wanted to withdraw
Bad internal validity?
Some people would argue there's no way people would believe that was going on at a respected university
What is external validity?
Whether something can be generalised outside the experiment
What are the two types of external validity?
Temporal validity and ecological validity
Evaluate the temporal validity
It is high because many replications have been done and have shown similar results meaning it can be generalised that most people are obedient when being given orders by an authorative figure
Evaluate the ecological validity
High because can be related to other real life situations such as the Louise Ogborn study