Genetics and Heredity

17 terms by Calabrom

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homozygous (purebred)

When an individual has inherited two alleles for a trait that are the same

heterozygous (hybrid)

when an individual has inherited two alleles for a trait that are different

Punnett square

a tool used to show all the possible offspring combinations from two specific parents

pedigree

a diagram tracing a trait through a family

karyotype

this picture shows all of the chromosomes from an individual, sorted in pairs

genotype

the two alleles that a person has inherited for a trait; example: TT

phenotype

the physical expression of a trait; this is determined by the genotype

DNA

genetic information for an individual; deoxyribonucleic acid

mutation

an unexpected change in a gene or chromosome

genetics

the study of how traits are passed on from parent to offspring

dominant trait

only one allele is needed for trait to be expressed

recessive trait

two alleles are needed for trait to be expressed

Gregor Mendel

father of genetics; he was the first person to study how traits are inherited. He used pea plants as his subjects.

genes

regions of DNA within each chromosome that control for traits

chromosome

in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

heredity

the passing of traits from parents to offspring

trait

physical characteristic (ex: eye color, skin color)

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