deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns. (p. 640)
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive
My little cousin has this and he is always running around with a lot of energy and can not pay attention to one thing for very long.
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
This is like the job of a psychiatrist. They have to diagnosis these patients using a medical model.
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
It is like adding all the different aspects together to get to the answer.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. (p. 597)
It's kind of like the dictionary of mental disorders.
an emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasines arising typically from the anticipation of unreal or imagined danger
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. (p. 649)
It's like having that pressure before a big game or match. You are always living with that though.
an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
My friend has this. They go through points where they are shaky and cant breath for a short time and then is fine.
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
an anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible.
It's like that movie we watched that the lady was so afraid of spiders that she could not leave her house without doing a special routine .
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
My cousin has OCD. His room has to be perfectly clean before he can go on with his day normally.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. (p. 652)
This is like what a lot of soldiers come back home with after war from seeing all those horrible things
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.
( p. 605)
It is like when you have a rough part in your life and when it is getting better you start having a more positive attitude
psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.
( p. 608)
It's like a hypochondriac.
a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)
It's like going into a coma for so reason.
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
dissociation so severe that the usually integrated functions of consciousness and perception of self break down
Dissociative Identity Disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
It is like being 2 or more people in the same body.
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder. ( p. 658)
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted, but also carried by bloodstream to the anterior pituitary which relaxes ACTH thus prolonging stress response
A neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction, and some cognitive functions including memory and learning.
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. ( p. 625)
It's like when a woman is in an abusive relationship and thinks that she has no one. She has known that so long that she stays.
Major Depressive Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
My uncle has this. At one time he can be in a very good mood and having a good time to switching to being depressed in one minute.
Seasonal Affect Disorder
a controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during the winter and an improvement of mood in the spring.
Its like being in a bad mood when the sun is not out.
the period after delivery to the return of the maternal organs to pre-pregnant state (about 6 weeks after childbirth)
any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
Causes of Schizophrenia
genetic factors, biochemical imbalances, brain abnormalities, psychosocial influences and stress
an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary
a false sensory perception that seems to be real but for which there is not an actual external stimulus
a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate.
It's like not being able to move because your muscles wont let you.
a negative symptom in which the person shows little or no emotion, speaks without emotional inflection, and maintains an immobile facial expression.
It's like talking to someone who has no emotions about what they are talking about or any facial expressions.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder is one in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. (p. 677)
a dissociative disorder in which a person forgets his or her current life and starts a new one somewhere else
a memory disturbance characterized by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences
It is kind of like Alzheimer. You can't remember past events.
types of Schizophrenia
Paranoid (delusions, hallucinations), disorganized (disorganized speech), catatonic (motor symptoms), undifferentiated (none-of-the-above; psychotic), residual (experience at least one episode of schizophrenia)
Types of personality disorders
anti-social personality, borderline personality, passive-aggressive disorder