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G1 phase

Cell grows, prepares for chromosome replicated

S phase

DNA replication; each chromosome duplicated to form two sister chromatids

G2 phase

More growth

M phase

Mitosis

Early Prophase

Chromosomes coil and sister chromatids become apparent; Nuclear structures begin to disappear

Middle Prophase

Mitotic spindle begins to form. Critical for moving chromosomes during mitosis; has two focal points.

Late Prophase

Nuclear envelope begins to break down; Mitotic spindle enters nuclear region. Spindle microtubules attach to centromeres via kinetochore complex (Sister chromatids become attached to opposite poles of the spindle).

Metaphase

Nuclear envelope absent; Action of mitotic spindle aligns sister chromatids at metaphase plate

Anaphase

Centromeres separate ("disjunction"); Daughter chromosomes move toward poles. Cytokinesis begins

Telophase

Daughter chromosomes complere movement to poles; chromosomes uncoil, nuclear envelope reforms. Spindle microtubules disappear.

Cytokinesis

Division of cytoplasm to form two cells; different strategies used animal and plant cells

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