Combined U. S. History SOL terms

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Invasion of Poland (1939)

Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II

Pearl Harbor (1941)

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

"a date that will live in infamy"

regarding the attack on pearl harbor, FDR asked in his address to congress for a declaration of war

Battle of Britain (1940)

the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German air force during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it

Lend-Lease Act

The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."

Non-aggression Pact

1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland

Allies

U.S., Great Britain, and Soviet Union in WWII

Axis Powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

Defeat Hitler first

Allied military strategy in the European Theater

El Alamein

Battle in Egypt. Allies won and prevented the Germans from taking over oil fields and the Suez Canal

Battle of Stalingrad

A 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union; turning point of war in Eastern Europe

D-Day

June 6, 1944...the day the Allies invaded Normandy, France during WWII. Allies were successful and began to liberate France. Turning point of the war in Western Europe.

Island Hopping

strategy used by the US in the Pacific theater, moving from island to island and eventually invading Japan

Battle of Midway "Miracle at Midway"

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Iwo Jima

One of the Bloodiest battles in WWII, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan

Battle of Okinawa

Final island the US captured as they approached Japan. Convinced the U.S. to end the war without invading Japan.

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

Nagasaki

Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945). Japan surrendered just a few days later, ending WWII.

Harry Truman

US president who made the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan to end the war

Tuskegee Airmen

African American fighter pilots from WWII. Served in segregated units.

Nisei Regiments

Segregated combats untis of WWII made up of Japanese-Americans.

Navajo

Native American language used by the U.S. military in WWII as a code against the Japanese.

Rosie the Riveter

symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war

Geneva Convention

A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war; revised after WWII.

Bataan Death March

Brutal march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers in 1942

Holocaust

the organized killing of European Jews, Gypsies, communists, the disabled, and others by the Nazis during WWII

Final solution

the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

genocide

systematic killing of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group

Nuremberg Trials

Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime

World War II began with this event

Hitler's invasion of Poland in 1939

Isolationism

A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs which the U. S. held at the beginning of WWII.

Who said that helping the allies in WWII was like , "lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire."

Franklin D. Roosevelt's quote about helping the allies in WWII.

Manchuria

Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931.

Dwight Eisenhower

United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany.

Atomic Bomb

bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities.

POW

prisoner of war

Kamikazi

Japanese suicide pilots

Undesirables

Hitler called Jews, Slavs, gypsies, homosexuals, and special needs people this

New England Colonies Economic System

The colonies with the economic system involving shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small scale subsistence farming.

Puritans

A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.

The Middle Colonies

New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.

Middle Colonies Economic System

The colonies with the economic system of shipbuilding, small-scale farming and trading.

Major cities in the early colonies

New York and Philidelphia

Southern Colonies Economis System

The colonies witht the economic system of large plantations and small subsistence farming.

Plantation

An estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale.

cash crop

Farm crop raised to be sold for money.

The three main cash crops in the early Southern Colonies

Tabacco, Indigo and Rice

Free Enterprise

Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference.

New England colonial society is based on?

Religious standing.

Rhode Island

Founded by dissenters fleeing persecution from Purtians in Massachusetts.

Middle colonies religious values.

The colonies home to mutiple religious groups who generally believed in religious tolerance.

Quakers

Religious group who settled Pennsylvania - very tolerant and nonviolent.

Huguenots

French protestants influenced by John Calvin in the coloney of New York .

Jews

The followers of Judaism are called this and were located in the coloney of New York.

Presbyterians

Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox in the coloney of New Jersey.

Entrepreneurs

Individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques. Many found in the Middle Colonies.

Virginia and Southern Colonies social structure was based on?

This colonies social structure was based on family status and the ownership of land.

Church of England

Large Land owners in in the eastern lowlands of the South maintained an allegiance to this church.

Subsistence Farming

A farm that produces enough food for the family with a small additional amount for trade.

Great Awakening

A religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies during the mid-1700s. It led to the rapid growth of evangelical religions such as Methodist and Baptist and challenged the established religous and governmental order. Laid one of the foundations for the American Revolution.

Athenian

Direct Democracy model like a town meeting in New England.

Indentured Servants

Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.

Slavery

Plantations in the Southern Colonies relied on this labor force for their plantations.

Middle Passage

The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas.

Jazz

a style of dance music popular in the 1920s

Fireside Chats

series of radio talks in which FDR explained his policies in a casual style

Scopes Trial

1925 trial in Tennessee on the issue of teaching evolution in public schools

Flappers

Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion

19th Amendment

gave women the right to vote in the U.S.

Prohibition

the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

speakeasies

bars that operated illegally during the time of Prohibition

overspeculation

the excessive and risky investment in stocks, in the hopes of making money quickly. A major cause of the Great Depression.

buying on margin

paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest. A major cause of the Great Depression.

Stock Market Crash of 1929

Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

an especially high import tariff passed by congress in 1930. It made the Great Depression worse by slowing international trade.

New Deal

The name of President Franklin Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression

WPA

Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; part of the New Deal

AAA

Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; part of the New Deal

FDIC

A federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions. Part of the New Deal and still around today.

Social Security Act

created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for the retired and others unable to work. Part of the New Deal and still around today.

Mass Media

Forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.

Darwin's Theory

This theory of evolution based on natural selection is the core theme of biology.

Klu Klux Klan (KKK)

The KKK was a secret racist organization, formed in 1865, thay worked to keep the freedmen from voting or exercising their other rights after the Civil War.

Bankruptcies

State of having legally declared inability to pay debts.

Great Depression

A severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.

Federal Reserve

Controls America's money supply, by controlling the interest rates of banks, also america's central bank.

Protective Tariff

A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy U. S. goods.

Foreclosure

The legal proceedings initiated by a creditor to repossess the collateral for loan that is in default. This happened to a lot of farmers during the Great Depression.

Migration

The movement of persons from one country or locality to another.

Franklin D. Rossevelt

U.S. president during the Great Depression and WW2.

Relief, Recovery, Reform

The three goals of FDR's New Deal.

Who said, "We have nothing to fear, but feat itself'?

Franklin Delanor Roosevelt's famous quote about fear.

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Dollar Diplomacy

President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad, especially in Latin America

Spanish American War

War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

Panama Canal

The canal that joined the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Theodore Roosevelt played a key role in its completion and encouraged Panama to get its independence from Columbia .

John Hay

The secretary of state who negotiated the idea of the open door policy.

Woodrow Wilson

U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Self-determination

the right of people to choose their own form of government

Mandate system

Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.

Treaty of Versailles

The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers after the end of World War I. It made Germany pay war reparations, stripped them of land and military, and blamed them for the war. The U.S never ratified the treaty.

reparations

payment for damages after a war

League of Nations

An organization formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace among nations. The U.S. never joined it.

John Hay

Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the Open-Door policy.

President Taft

27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930). He replaced Teddy Roosevelt as President and would later lose to Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 election.

Global Economey

Growth in international trade occurrred from the late 1800s to WWI which began the first era of . . .

Hawaii

America attained Hawaii by dethrowning Queen Liliuokalani. Hawaii became the 50th State.

Philippines

Spanish colony in the Pacific whom the US helped free from the Spanish, but soon after took as their own colony.

Central Powers

In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

Allies

In World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers

submarine warfare

What brought US into war; Germany began to use subs to sink British merchant ships; sinks civilian passenger line; promises to stop using subs but eventually starts to use again

Freedom of the seas

The right of merchant ships to travel freely in international waters

United States failure to approve the Treaty of Versailles

The United States Senate would not apporve the treaty because they ojected to U. S. foregin policy decisions being made by an international organization like the League of Nations

Sandra Day O'Connor

First woman supreme court justice. Appointed by Reagan. She has retired.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Second female Supreme Court justice.

Clarence Thomas

Second African American nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill.

Individual Rights

basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.

Right to Privacy

The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.

Immigration

Movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population.

Political Freedom

Many immigrants come to the United States to participate freely in the political process, choose and remove public officials to be governed under a rule of law.

Economic Opportunity

Many immigrants come to the United States for a chance to better oneself by getting a better job.

Bilingual Education

A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and the second (majority) language.

Cultural Diversity

The state of having a variety of cultures in the same area.

American Space Program

This worked harder to put man on the moon in the 1960s.

John Glenn

First American to orbit the Earth

Neil Armstrong

First man on the moon. He proclaimed," That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind".

Sally Ride

First American woman in space.

Space Exploration

This led to expansion of satellites and global communications.

Space Shuttle

A spacecraft that can carry a crew into space, return to Earth, and then be reused for the same purpose.

Mars Rover

Used to perform experiments on and test soil of Mars.

Voyager Missions

Journeys to study the region in space where the Sun's influence ends and the dark recesses of interstellar space begin.

Hubble Telescope

Large space telescope able to see farther than any other telescope at the end of the 20th century.

Satellite

Man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon

Global Postitioning System

A method of finding latitude and longitude using network of sattelites

Robotics

Mechanical devices programmed to do routine tasks.

Telecommuting

Employment at home while communicating with the workplace by phone or fax or modem.

Outsourcing

Removes work from one company and sends it to another company that can complete it at a lower cost.

Off-shoring

Moving work to other countries.

Reagan Revolution

Pioneered by Ronald Reagan who cut spending food stamps and job programs, rose federal spending drastically, and gave tax cuts to the wealthy to stimulate the economy; a huge gap would form between rich and poor.

Federalism

A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.

Judicial Restraint

Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.

William Clinton

First baby boomer president and the second U.S. president to be impeached and acquitted.

Federal Reserve

The central bank of the U.S. Controls the the supply of money and attempts to control interest rates.

Fiscal Policy

A government policy for dealing with the budget (especially with taxation and borrowing).

Patriot Act

Passed after September 11th, 2001; this law broadens law enforcement's powers of arrest and investigation, especially for suspected terrorists; some claim this is a violation of civil liberties.

George W. Bush

President after Reagan, President when Cold War ended and when Sadam Hussein invaded Kuwait, sent troops to Iran which started the Persian Gulf War.

Brown v. Board of Education

court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson.

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