Uncertain use of a term or concept
More frequently an incorret answer
Attacks the source's motives or actions, not argument
Assumes as truw what is supposed to be proved. Premise=conclusion
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
confusing necessary and sufficient conditions
Mistaken Cause and effect
Assumes causal relationship due to: Sequence of events, because of correlation or fails to consider different causes, or that the relationship might be reversed
Distorts the agument, doesn't attack the argument directly..."So what you're saying is...."
Lack of evidence
irrelevant evidence or saying a situation has always existed
"draws conclusion that is broader in scope.."
"inconsistent, incompatible, contradicts"
Appeal to Authority
"inappropriotely appeals to the authority..."
"the judgement of experts is applied to a matter in which their expertise is irrevelvant"
Appeal to Numbers/ Popular Opinion
Most often in incorrect answers
"treats popular opinion as conclusive evidence"
"appealing to public sentiment"
Biased sample, questions improperly constructed, respondents give inaccurate responses
"small sample that is unrepresentative"
"generalizes from an unrepresentative sample"
Erros of Composition/Division
Attributes characteristics of part of the group to the group as a whole OR attributes a characteristic of the whole to a part of the group
"takes the view of one to represent all"
"presumes that what is true of a whole must also be true of its parts"
"treats as similar two cases that are different in a critical respect"
"treats two kinds of things that differ in important respects as if they do not differ"
Assumes only two courses of action are available
"fails to consider..."
Errors in the Use of Evidence
Lack of evidence to prove a position is false or true; some evidence used to prove a position is false/true
"treats failure to prove a claim as denial of that claim"
"Treats failure to establish that a certain claim is false as evidence that the claim in true"
"confuses undermining an arguement..."
"takes evidence showing the conclusion could be true to conclude that it is in fact true"
Time Shift Errors
assuming conditions remain constant over time
"draws an inference from what has been true..."
"treats a claim about what is currently the case..."
Number and Percentage Errors
improperly equates a percentage with a definite quantity
"confuses the percentage of the budget spent on a program with the overall amount spent on the program"