cell size shape position number and adhesivity
5 factors of cell change that cause morphogenesis
genetic mutation, environmental insult
2 causes of dysmorphogenesis
Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus. includes drugs, alcohol ; environmental insult
what is defined as the fetal period?
when are the organ systems mature and become fully functional?
blastocyst implantation stimulates endometrial cells, and stroma cells become decidual cells
what happens to maternal endometrial cells upon implantation of a blastocyst?
tertiary stem villi change dependent on the location
what is the difference between the smooth chorion and chorion frondusum?
maternal placenta contains about 150mL of blood replaced 3-4 times per minute
what are the blood flow amounts through the placenta?
oyxgen and nutrients come in, waste comes out; antibodies provide baby with passive immunity
what crosses the placenta?
Antibodies cross over and fetal RBCS die due to Rh incompatibility, hemolytic disease of newborn
describe the disease mechanism of erythroblastosis fetalis
Other- Parovirus, varicella zoster
Rubella- German measles
Cytomeglovirus- assymptomatic in adults
identify viruses that can cross the placenta?
treated= can be as low as 1%
infection rates of HIV in treated vs untreated mothers
lung or kidney disease, High blood pressure, preeclampsia, rubella, teratogen, anemia, diabetes
4 causes of intrauterine growth restriction
HGC, HPL, estrogen, progesterone
4 placental hormones
amniotic fluid can be compared to _________
reduction in amniotic fluid may be a sign of ________
monozygotic- share membranes, placenta, failure to fully separate creates conjoined twins
dizygotic- separate membranes and placenta, may be different sexes, appear to have genetic component
monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins
alpha-fetoprotein fetal liver function
tests for down or nerual tube defects
3 things tested during maternal serum screening
takes pictures of baby using sound waves, also used to guide needles during amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling
2 purposes of ultrasonography
when can an amniocentesis be performed?
metabolic byproducts that may signal disease
what is an amniocentesis checking for?
surgical or drug intervention
what are 2 methods of prenatal treatment?
lack of discomfort during collection, high recovery of viable stem cells, rapid expansion of cells in culture, able to be cryopreserved, reduced graft vs host disease
what are 5 advantages of stem chord cells?
One of the lobules constituting the uterine side of the mammalian placenta, consisting mainly of a rounded mass of villi.