the implied world of the story, including settings, characters, sounds, and events.
elements that exist within the world of the history. Sounds, characters, settings and events that the characters of the film are aware of
elements that exist outside of the story world (credits and some film music). Use to comment on or draw attention.
a large-budget film whose strategy is to swamp the competition through market saturation.
High concept films
A post-studio era Hollywood film designed to appeal to the broadest possible audience by fusing a simple story line with major movie stars and mounting a lavish market campaign.
high/saturated level of marketing of a certain product. When the amount of product provided in a market has been maximized in the current state of the marketplace. At the point of saturation, further growth can only be achieved through product improvements, market share gains or a rise in overall consumer demand.
Characteristics of current film industry
outsourcing, runaway production, creative centralization
Process of contracting a business function to someone else. The practice of Hollywood studios contracting out post-production work to individuals or films outside the United States.
Film productions shot outside of the United States for economic reasons.
The production of ideas has become more centralized.
The expenditures of six media companies account for three-quarters of the total spending on screen writing in the United States.
.forcing exhibitors to rent a studio's less profitable films along with the sure box office successes. an outlawed studio era practice, where studios forced exhibitors to book groups of films at once, thus ensuring a market for their failures along with their successes.
a business model adopted by the major studios, in which studios controlled all aspects of the film business, from production to distribution to exhibition.
Smaller theater. film is not financed by a major Hollywood studio. Independent filmmakers secure fund by seeking out sponsors, drumming up investors, or borrowing money from friends and relatives. They are freer to explore complex topics and social issues that may be off-limits to make or studios afraid of offending their general audience.
A large theater with more than a dozen screen.
is the method of replacing one shot on screen with a second
the most common transition, when shot A abruptly ends and shot B begins
a shot transition that involves the gradual disappearance of the image at the same time that a new image gradually comes into view.
second most common shot in which shot A gradually darkens until the screen is black (or white or any other solid color) and then shot A gradually appears
when a circular mask- a device placed over the lens of the camera that obscures part of the image-appears over Shot A.
a shot transition that emphasizes the visual similarities between two consecutive shots.
to indicate the passage of time. consist of several shots, each one occurring at a different point in time.
Parallel editing/ cross cutting
is when a filmmaker cuts back and forth between two or more event occurring in different spaces, usually suggesting that these events are happening at the same time
a system devised to minimize the audience's awareness of shot transitions, especially cuts, in order to improve the flow of the story and avoid interrupting the viewer's immersion in it.
Soviet montage editing
is a style of editing built around the theory that editing should exploit the difference between shots to generate intellectual and emotional responses in the audience. was developed in Russia during the silent film era, when the Soviet regime had just come to power
French New Wave
some filmmakers break the rules of continuity editing because audiences are used to seeing films that conform to the conventions of continuity editing, filmmakers understand that intentionally upsetting these expectations can provoke emotional and intellectual responses.
Primary components of film sound
dialogue, music and sound effects
Forwards the narrative, giving voice to characters' aspirations, thoughts and emotions, often making conflicts among characters evident
dialogue makes meaning through the text (the words a character says), the line reading (the way an actor says the line, including pauses, intonation, and emotion), and the subtext (the unstated meaning that underlies spoken words)
reflects the level and type of a person's engagement with her surroundings
gives the audience information on character's background
the only function of a score is to provide background music which sustains audience attention and lends coherence to a scene. It can also develop systematically and establish motifs and parallels and it can evolve with narrative context
Play in important role in defining a scene's location; they can lend a mood to the scene; they can suggest the environments impact on characters
the artists who make the sound effects.
sound effects recorded on location
ADR (automatic dialogue replacement)
a technique for recording synchronized dialogue in post-production, using a machine that runs forward and backward.
cutting several identical lengths of developed film and having actors record the dialogue repeatedly.
is to externalize a character's thoughts and feelings, bringing motivations, goals and conflicts to the surface.
Text and Subtext
Clunky dialogue that states the obvious is called on-the-nose dialogue
the words a characters says
the way an actor says the line, including pauses, intonation and emotion
the unstated meaning that underlies spoken words
suggest the emotional vigor of dialogue. Loudness usually connotes a character experiencing intense emotion, such as anger, fear, or passion. Softness, on the other hand, usually connotes a more timid or carefully considered emotional response: tenderness, diffidence, sophistication, fear, or even guile.
High pitched characters
associated with weakness or indecisiveness
Deep pitched characters
evil or duplicity
Accent us a powerful indictor of background and social status. Vocal tics particular to specific individuals
The way voices sound can suggest the distance between characters, or mood, aura, or atmosphere of a place—its ambience
a direct vocal address to the audience, which may emanate from a character or form a narrating voice apparently unrelated to the diegesis.
It gives special attention and allows audience access to a characters immediate thoughts.
Nature of environment that surrounds the characters.
Sound effects defines location rather generically
Lend Mood to an Environment
Likewise contribute to the mood established by the mise en scene
Portray the Environment's Impact on Characters
Illustrate how the environment has a direct impact on characters
the theory proposes that the director is the author of the film. Implies that the director is the primary creative source and, therefore, his films express his distinctive vision of the world
Andrew Sarris Auteur approach
Director must demonstrate a distinguishable personality. films in an auteur's body of work share an interior meaning, defined as an underlying tension between the director's vision and the subject matter.
a director must be capable of creating a well made film
Criticism of the auteur approach
Many critics believed that Sarris did not define this last criterion satisfactorily. Kael criticized the auteur approach for refusing to take into account the collaborative nature of filmmaking. Theory ignores the fact that many people's creative decisions are part of the process of making films
The image constructed across these outlets makes up what critics call. Stars, agents and studios still manipulate the star's appearance in films
Voice of authority
Combine voice-over narration with images. Sole intention to persuade of the rightness of a single view as referred to as propaganda film
Interviews and captures personal feelings
Director being part of the documentary (with self-interviews and others)
observational documentaries. Director's perspective and judgements.
Process of filming and expose the way the medium constructs reality. Relationship between documentary images and reality
o Not documentary films by fiction films that pose as documentaries by familiar conventions. (i.e. The Office)
Forms/Strategies of documentary films
Voice of authority; Talking heads; Director-participant; Direct cinema; Self-reflexive; Mockumentary
Significant styles and traditions of avant-garde films
Surrealism; abstract; city symphonies; structural film; compilation film
Rife of humor, sexuality, and scandalous images
abandon human figures. i.e. nature, items etc
A genre that combines documentary and experimental films; modern city view.
The material properties of the medium: strips of film, sound waves, cameras and lenses
reuses pre-existing film footage in an entirely new context to generate innovative ideas
Generally fictional narratives involving conflict and change
When shot B appears to push shot A of the screen
Relationship to vertical integration
Vertical integration helped the studios guarantee stable box office receipts through practices such as block booking
Viewers expect to see stories about human characters whose circumstances produce comedy or tragedy or both
-string of events occurring in space and time
-Focus on human characters and their struggles
-characters pursue goals and encounter obstacles along the way
Viewers expect the film to present real world events, and might expect the film to be given factual information about historical or contemporary situation
Inform and persuade audiences by presenting facts and logical arguments
Viewers expect no story at all, this type of film makers see films as a visual art form rather than a story telling