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Bowen's reaction series

sequential, predictable, dual-branched pattern in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma

extrusive rocks

fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth's surface

fractional crystallization*

the process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures

igneous rock

formed from the crystallization of magma

intrusive rocks

coarse-grained rocks that cool slowly beneath Erath's surface

lava

magma that flows out onto the Earth's surface

partial melting*

the process whereby some minerals melt at low temperatures while other minerals remain solid

felsic rocks

light-colored rocks that have high silica content and contain quartz and the feldspars orthoclase and plagioclase

kimberlite*

rare ultramafic rock that can contain diamonds and other minerals formed only under very high pressures

mafic rocks

dark-colored rocks that have low silica content and are rich in iron and magensium.

pegmatite*

vein deposits of extremely large-grained minerals that contain rare ores such as lithium and beryllium

porphyritic

rock texture characterized by large, well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same material

ultramafic*

igneous rocks with low silica content and very high levels of magnesium and iron.

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