respond to stimuli arising with in the body. Found in the internal visceral organs and include stretch receptors, chemoreceptors, and others. Subdivision proprioceptor located in joint capsules and skeletal muscles and tendons
found close to the bodys surface. Include cutaneous receptors in the skin and the higly specialized receptor structures of the special senses (i.e. eyes for seeing, ears for hearing, and equilbrium) respond to external stimuli
backing into a warm iron railing (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
someone steps on your foot (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
reading a book (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
leaning on your elbow (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
exteroceptor; pacinian corpuscles and nociceptor
doing sit-ups (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
exteroceptor; nociceptor and pacinian corpuscles
the "too full" sensation (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
interoceptor; pacinian corpuscles
seasickness (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
exteroceptor; equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear
feeling the wind on your face (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
exteroceptor; root hair plexus, meissners corpuscles, merkel discs
sticking your finger with a pin (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)
Explain how sensory receptors act as transducers
They change environmental stimuli into afferent nerve impulses
An excitant or irritant. A change in the internal or external environment that will invoke a response, ultimately generating an action potential.
what was determined by the two-point discrimination test?
that the density of receptors differ in various parts of the body with an increased number in some areas such as the finger tips and lips and a decreased number in other areas like the back of neck
How did the accuracy of the subject's tactile localization correlate with the results of the two-point discrimination test?
the subjects usually showed that areas of receptors had greater density (the lowest two point threshold)
define punctate distribution
the type of distribution of sensory receptors in which they are not distributed uniformly, but instead have discrete locations and are characterized by clustering at certain points
Which cutaneous receptors are the most numerous?
merkel discs, meissners corpuscle and krauss end bulbs
which 2 body areas tested were the most sensitive to touch?
fingers and lips
What 2 body areas tested were least sensitive to touch?
lower back and back of the neck
which appears to be more numerous - receptors that respond to cold or to heat?
Where would referred pain appear if the gallbladder was receiving painful stimuli?
right lumbar, right hypochondriac, epigastric, umbilical (upper portion)
Where would referred pain appear if the kidneys were receiving painful stimuli?
abdominal pelvic, flanks bilaterally, lower back, inner and outer thighs, buttock
Where would referred pain appear if the appendix was receiving painful stimuli?
right illiac, hypogastric (upper left portion)
Where would referred pain appear if the heart was receiving painful stimuli?
radiates to superior thoracic wall and along medial aspect at left arm
Where was the referred pain felt when the elbow was immersed in ice water during the laboratory experiment?
medial portion of hand (ring and pinky fingers)
What region of the cerebrum interprets the stimuli (type and intensity) that causes cutaneous sensation?
a slow decline of conscious awareness to a prolonged stimulus
Why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stimuli, whether heat, cold, or pressure?
protection; prevention of injury
Why is the non-adaptability of pain receptors important?
provides an on going alertness; prevention of on going injury or damage
Imagine yourself without any cutaneous sense organs. Why might this be very dangerous?
lack of a warning means increased potential for damage or injury
Define referred pain
is a sensory experience in which pain is perceived as arising in one area of the body when in fact another, often quite remote area is receiving the painful stimulus
What is the probable explanation for referred pain?
referred pain may occur because the nerves innervating both viscera (organs) and somatic structures travel along the same pathways