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general sensation

define interoceptors

respond to stimuli arising with in the body. Found in the internal visceral organs and include stretch receptors, chemoreceptors, and others. Subdivision proprioceptor located in joint capsules and skeletal muscles and tendons

define exteroceptor

found close to the bodys surface. Include cutaneous receptors in the skin and the higly specialized receptor structures of the special senses (i.e. eyes for seeing, ears for hearing, and equilbrium) respond to external stimuli

backing into a warm iron railing (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; nociceptor

someone steps on your foot (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; nociceptor

reading a book (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; photoreceptors

leaning on your elbow (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; pacinian corpuscles and nociceptor

doing sit-ups (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; nociceptor and pacinian corpuscles

the "too full" sensation (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

interoceptor; pacinian corpuscles

seasickness (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear

feeling the wind on your face (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; root hair plexus, meissners corpuscles, merkel discs

sticking your finger with a pin (exteroceptor or interoceptor and specific receptor type)

exteroceptor; nocioceptors

Explain how sensory receptors act as transducers

They change environmental stimuli into afferent nerve impulses

define stimulus

An excitant or irritant. A change in the internal or external environment that will invoke a response, ultimately generating an action potential.

what was determined by the two-point discrimination test?

that the density of receptors differ in various parts of the body with an increased number in some areas such as the finger tips and lips and a decreased number in other areas like the back of neck

How did the accuracy of the subject's tactile localization correlate with the results of the two-point discrimination test?

the subjects usually showed that areas of receptors had greater density (the lowest two point threshold)

define punctate distribution

the type of distribution of sensory receptors in which they are not distributed uniformly, but instead have discrete locations and are characterized by clustering at certain points

Which cutaneous receptors are the most numerous?

merkel discs, meissners corpuscle and krauss end bulbs

which 2 body areas tested were the most sensitive to touch?

fingers and lips

What 2 body areas tested were least sensitive to touch?

lower back and back of the neck

which appears to be more numerous - receptors that respond to cold or to heat?

cold

Where would referred pain appear if the gallbladder was receiving painful stimuli?

right lumbar, right hypochondriac, epigastric, umbilical (upper portion)

Where would referred pain appear if the kidneys were receiving painful stimuli?

abdominal pelvic, flanks bilaterally, lower back, inner and outer thighs, buttock

Where would referred pain appear if the appendix was receiving painful stimuli?

right illiac, hypogastric (upper left portion)

Where would referred pain appear if the heart was receiving painful stimuli?

radiates to superior thoracic wall and along medial aspect at left arm

Where was the referred pain felt when the elbow was immersed in ice water during the laboratory experiment?

medial portion of hand (ring and pinky fingers)

What region of the cerebrum interprets the stimuli (type and intensity) that causes cutaneous sensation?

somatosensory cortex

Define adaptation

a slow decline of conscious awareness to a prolonged stimulus

Why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stimuli, whether heat, cold, or pressure?

protection; prevention of injury

Why is the non-adaptability of pain receptors important?

provides an on going alertness; prevention of on going injury or damage

Imagine yourself without any cutaneous sense organs. Why might this be very dangerous?

lack of a warning means increased potential for damage or injury

Define referred pain

is a sensory experience in which pain is perceived as arising in one area of the body when in fact another, often quite remote area is receiving the painful stimulus

What is the probable explanation for referred pain?

referred pain may occur because the nerves innervating both viscera (organs) and somatic structures travel along the same pathways

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