The study of how your body uses the food that you eat.
Nutrients are found in __________.
Nutrients give you __________.
What is a nutrient? (4)
- gives energy (found in foods)
- helps build cells and tissues
- regulates bodily process (breathing)
- need a variety (is the spice of life)
The 3 macro-nutrients
- carbohydrate (need this most, 60% everyday)
- protein (need this 3rd most)
- fat (need this 2nd most)
Typical American diet
a measure of energy
How many calories equal one pound?
How many EXTRA calories per day does the average American consume?
278 extra calories (gains around 24 pounds in a year)
3 factors that affect how many calories you need
3. Activity leve'
How to loose weight
How to gain weight
consume more calories
1 gram of carbohydrates delivers how many calories?
complex (whole gran form, fruits, veggies, dairy...)
simple (high in sugar, cupcakes, junk food...)
Why do we need CHO's?
- body's main fuel source
- easily used by the body for energy
- all tissues and cells in our body use glucose for energy
- needed for kidney, CNS, the brain, and muscles to function properly
- can be stored in muscles and liver, and later used for energy
a type of carbohydrate that our body can't digest
What happens when you don't get enough fiber?
Protein comes from:
plant and animal sources
Every gram of protein delivers how many calories?
Why do we need protein to survive?
- aids in normal growth and development
- tissue repair
- immune function
- making essential hormones and enzymes
- energy when CHO is not available (2nd in line)
- preserves lean muscle mass
Every gram of fat supplies how many calories?
The four types of fat
good for you (found in dark gold to green foods: almonds, olives, peanut butter, avocado...)
Not-so-bad for you (found in light and transparent oils: nuts, seeds...)
Not-so-good for you (fats that are solid at room temperature, generally in animal products: butter, meat, bacon, milk...)
Worst/bad for you (found in processed foods: cookies, french fries, deep fried foods, donuts...)
BAD FOR THE HEART
We need fat to survive because
- normal growth and development
- energy (the most concentrated source of energy)
- help with absorption of certain vitamins
- provides cushioning for the organs
How many cups of water should we be drinking?
6 to 8 cups of water daily
Micro-nutrients are made up of:
vitamins and minerals (that are required in small amounts to ensure normal metabolism, growth, and physical well-being)
essential, most are not made in the body
Vitamins are classified as either _______________ or _____________ based on how they are absorbed and used by the body.
Which vitamin(s) are water soluble?
vitamins B and C
Water soluble: (4)
- body does NOT store
- dissolves in water and goes to the bloodstream
- body keeps what it needs and excretes the rest
- needs to be replenished
Chemical name for vitamin C
Foods with vitamin C
oranges, limes, kiwis
Vitamin C helps with:
immune system and aids in absorption of iron
A disease caused by a vitamin C deficiency
Symptoms of scurvy include (4)
~ spongy gums
~ loosening of teeth
~ bleeding into skin and mucous membranes
~ extreme weakness
Fat solubles include vitamins:
A,D,E and K
- stored in the body
- dissolves in fat
- body uses what it needs and stores
too much vitamin in the body
Vitamin D: Main source comes from___________.
- present in few foods
- egg yolks, fish oils and milk
- strengthens bones (calcium)
Vitamin D deficiency can cause a disease called________.
- a childhood disease
- softening of bones (abnormal bones)
- chronic pain
- cannot grow out of it
a. essential for stong bones
b. needs 1300 mg/day
c. fewer than 1 in 10 girls get enough calcium
d. bone mass is build from ages 9 to 18, and stto[p buildin after age 30
Foods that provide calcium are:
broccoli, milk, cheese...
makes bones weak so they break more easily (lack of calcium)
Iron is also known as:
folic acid and folate
Most iron in our body is found in the blood as ____________.
Iron is found in foods like
liver, red meat, strawberries, raisins....
treatable, most common nutritional disorder in the world (lack of iron)
Symptoms of anemia:
- decrease in mental function
- heavy chest feeling
10 US dietary guidelines
1. aim for a healthy weight
2. be physically active each day
3. build a healthy base (pyramid)
4. variety of grains
5. fruits and vegetables
6. keep food safe to eat
7. low saturated fat and cholesterol
8. choose drinks and foods to moderate sugars
9. less salt
10. don't drink alcohol
Sample label step #1
start with the serving facts
Sample label step #2
Sample label step #3
limit these nutrients: saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium and dietary fiber
Sample label step #4
get enough of these nutrients: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium and Iron
Sample label step #5
DV (daily value) gives upper and lower limits per day based on calories
Sample label step #6
% daily value (5% or less is low, 20% or more is high)
Sample label step #7
ingredients listed in descending order of weight (most to least)