DH Boards; Head/Neck/Dental Anatomy

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What are the parts of the temporal bone?

mastoid orcess
styloid process
articular fossa and eminence
stylomastoid foramen (VII)
Petrous portion

What part of the temporal bone houses the hearing components?

Petrous portion

What bone is the most medial bone of the orbit?

Lacrima

What boneare the superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, and foramen ovale found in?

Sphenoid *(Sphenoid is so crowded that it's a Standing room Only)

What does the condyl allow the jaw to do?

Rotate

What muscle attaches to the coronoid process?

Temporalis

What is a soft tissue landmark behind the lower molars?

Retromolar triangle

Oh Oh Oh, to touch and feel vande graffs very accessable hair!

Olfactory
Optic
Oculomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facia
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Accessory
Hypoglossal

What is the function of the Olfactory nerve?

Sensory (some); sense of smell

What is the function of the optic nerve?

Sensory (say); sense of sight

What is the function of the Oculomotor?

Motor (money); eye muscles, pupil, lens

What is the function of the Trochlear nerve?

Motor (matters); eye muscles

What is the function of the Trigeminal nerve?

Both (but) Opthalmic, maxilary and Mandibular divisions

What is the function of the abducens nervve?

Motor (my); eye muscle

What is the function of the facial nerve?

Both (brother); muscle of facial expression
taste (ANTERIOR 2/3 of tongue via chorda tympani)
Sublingual and sub mental salivary glands

what is the function of the vestibulocochclear nerve?

Sensory (says); sense of balance and hearing

What is the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Both (big); posterior 1/3 of tongue, parotid gland

What is the function of the vagus nerve?

Both (boobs); smooth muscle of glands of the body and Cardiac muscle

What is the function of the Accessory nerve?

Motor (matter); trapezius, sternocleidomastoid muscle, pharynx and larynx

What is the function of the hypoglossal nerve?

Motor (more); muscles of the tongue (except palatoglossus, X, XI)

What nerve supplied to the muscles of mastication?

Mandibular division of Tigeminal nerve

What artery supplies blood to the muscles of mastication?

Maxillary artery

What are the 4 muscles of mastication?

Temporalis
Masseter
Medial Ptyerygoid
Lateral Ptyerygoid

What muscles elevate the mandible?

Must Take Matt on the Elevator!
Masseter, Temporalis, Medial Ptyerygoid

What muscles depresses the mandible?

Later, be depressed and high
Lateral Ptyerygoid, Hyoid mucles

What muscle allows side to side movement of mandible?

Lateral pterygoid, lateral movement with the lateral pterygoid

The masseter and medial pterygoid muscles have similar movements and locations, but how are they in relation to each other?

Medial pterygoid is internal; Masseter is external (think of giving an IA injection, the medial pterygoid is providing resistance)

What is a fibrous pad of dense collegen tissue, prevents bone to bone contact, divides the TMJ into upper and lower synovial cavities, and moves with the condyle under normal functions?

Articular disc

What is a fibrous tissue surrounding the TMJ; secretes synovial fluid?

Capsule

What is the movement where the condyle rotates in the fossa>?

Rotation

What is the movement where the condyle slides forward along the articualr fossa to the articular eminence>?

Translation

What muscle retrudes the mandible?

temporalis

What muscle protrudes the mandible?

lateral pterygoid

What nerve inervates the muscles of facial expression?

The Facial nerve (VII)

What artery feeds the muscles of facial expression?

the facial artery (a branch off of the External Carotid Artery)

What 2 nerves inervate the hyoid muscles?

Trigeminal and Facial

What four infrahyoid muslces stabilize the hyoid?

Thyrohyoid
Sternothyroid
Sternohyoid
Omohyoid

What 4 supra-hyoid muscles depress (open) the mandible?

Mylohyoi-floor of mouth
genio hyoid
digastric
stylohyoid

What is the nerve inervation of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle and its action?

Accessory nerve XI; tilts and rotates the head

What is the pacemaker of the heart; where is it located?

SA (SinoAtrial) Node; right atrial wall

What artery supplies the heart with blood?

Coronary arteries

In an emergency, where do you check the pulse in an adult? Child?

Adult-carotid; Child-brachial

Non-emergency, where do you check the puse in an adult? Child?

Adult-radial; Child-brachial still

In an adult, where do you place BP cuff?

over the brachial artery

Flow of de-oxygenated blood from body to lungs?

superior and inferior vena cavae-->
Right Atrium-->
tricuspid valve-->
right ventricle-->
pulmonary artery to lungs

Flow of oxygenated blood from lungs to body?

from lungs in pulmonary vein-->
left atrium-->
bicuspid (mitral) valve-->
left ventricle-->
Aorta

3 major branches off of the external carotid artery to know?

Maxillary
Lingual
Facial

What does the Maxillary Art. supply?

teeth
muscles of mastication
ear

What does the lingual art. supply?

tongue
floor of mouth

What does the facial art. supply?

muscles of facial expression
lips
eyelids
soft palate
throat

What vein runs with the carotid artery?

Jugular vein

Where does the blood from maxillary vein drain into?

Pterygoid plexus

What structures drain into the plexus?

teeth, muscles of mastication, buccinator, nose, palate

What sinus containing blood is locate on each side of the body of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the brain, behind the nose?

cavernous sinus

During pregnancy, fetal pressure on what could cause orthostatic hypotension?

Vena cava

Tender or enlarged lymph nodes can indicate what?

infection and/or malignancy

Where are lymphocytes derived from?

stem cells in the bone marrow

Where are lymphocytes present in?

lymph nodes

Where do T cells mature?

thymus

Submental nodes-->____________-->Deep cerival nodes

submental nodes --> submandibular nodes--> deep cervial nodes

What houses a ribosome-filled membranous network, and is the site for cellular protein synthesis?

ER; Endoplasmic Reticulum

What packages cellular protein product for secretion?

Golgi bodies

What is the center for energy production (ATP), respiration?

Mitochondria

What is responsible for phagocytosis and digestion within a cell?

Lysosomes (to lyse-kill)

What provides structural support with in a cell?

Filaments and tubules

What is the tissue that lines the oral cavity?

Stratified squamous epithelium;
good for protection, absorption, secretion

What tissue holds together, supports, and connects body parts?

Connective tissue;
bone, cartilage, fibrous, fat, blood, dentin, pulp, collagen

What are the 3 types of muscular tissue?

smooth/involuntary
skelatal/voluntary
cardiac

Most structures of the oral cavity develop from 2 embryonic processes; what are they?

Frontal process
1st branchial arch

The frontal process gives rise to 2 processes and a structure, what are they

forehead
Median nasal process
lateral nasal process

What 3 things does the median nasal process give rise to?

center and tip of nose
nasal septum
globular process (philtrum, premaxillary palate)

What 2 structures does the lateral nasal process give rise to?

sides of nose
infraorbital area

The 1st branchial arch gives rise to what 2 processes?

Maxillary process
Mandibular process

What 3 structures does the maxillary process give rise to?

lateral palatine processes (palatal shelves...bend & snap)
upper parts of cheek
sides of upper lip

What 3 structures does the mandibular process give rise to?

lower jaw
lower parts of the face and lower lip
anterior 2/3 of tongue

Where does the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and hyoid bone develop from?

2 and 3 branchial arches

What week does the development of the FACE begin?

week 3

What seperates the oral cavity from the pharynx until rupturing during the 4th week?

buccopharyngeal membrane

When is the upper lip complete?

6-8 weeks

How is the upper lip formed?

by the fusion of median nasal process and right/left maxiallary process?

When does the palate develop?

6-12 weeks

What does the palate develop from?

the fusion of the globular process and right and left palatal shelves

In what direction do embryonic structures develop from?

anterior --> posterior

When do most abnormalities develop during pregnancy occur?

1st trimester

what 4 nerves innervate the tongue?

5,7,9,12 (sensory, taste, taste, motor)
trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal

What muscles determines the shape of the tongue?

intrinsic muscles

What muscles control the position of the tongue?

Extrinisic muscles

What are the 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Hyoglossus
Styloglossus
genioglossus

what are the 4 papillae of the tongue?

filiform
fungiform
foliate
circumvalalate

What are the papillae on the tongue that do not contain tastebuds?

filiform

What is it called when the filliform papillae are elongated?

hairy tongue

what minor salivary glads are located in certain papillae, and which papillae are they?

glands of Von Ebner; circumvallate

What is the site of the embryonic origin of the thyroid gland?

foramen caecum

What type of glands are salivary glands, and what does that mean?

Exocrine glands; they have ducts

what type of cells are salivary glands ducts lined with?

Stratified cuboidal epithelial cells

what nervous system controls the salivary gland control?

Parasymathetic nervous system; rest and digest

What salivary gland secretes the most abundant saliva? and what type is it?

sub-mandibular; 65% mixed, mostly serous

What nerve controls the sub-lingual and sub-mandibular glands? Parotid gland?

VII...Facial; IX...Accessory

What duct is associated with submandibular gland?

Whattons duct

What duct is associated with Sublingual gland?

Bartholins duct

What duct is associated with the parotid gland?

Stensons duct

What gland secretes the 2nd most total saliva in the mouth?

Parotid; 25%, serous saliva

What are the 3 developmental layers?

Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Endoderm

What are the 5 stages of tooth development?

Initiation (BUD stage) Starts!
Proliferation (CAP stage) Grows!
Differentiation (BELL stage) Specializes!
Morphogenisis
Maturation

What stageis it when the dental lamina growns into the underlying mesenchymal tissue at 20 places to form the primary teeth?

Initiation (BUD stage)

What stage is it when enamel organ develops from the dental lamina, the dental papilla arises from specialized connective tissue, the dental sac surrounds the developing tooth?

Proliferation (CAP stage)

What does the dental sac give rise to?

PAC the SAC, periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, cementum

During differentiation, the enamel organ develops into what 4 distinct layers?

Outer enamel epithelium
Stellate reticulum
Stratum intermedium
Inner enamel epithilium

What does the DEJ develop from?

the basement membrane

What cells produce enamel?

Ameloblasts

What cells produce dentin?

Odontoblasts

Outer enamel epi and Inner enamel epi get together to form what?

HERS

What does HERS do?

forms/shapes the roots

Ectoderm-->Dental lamina-->Enamel Organ--> Inner Enamel Epithelium-->Ameloblasts-->Enamel

:)

Term for tooth structure being produced layer by layer?

appositional growth

What is crystalized calcium phosphate?

hydroxyapetite, mineralizes tooth matrix, dentin, cementum, bone

When does root formation end?

1-4 years after eruption

What does the enamel organ condense to form?

REE; reduced enamel epithelium

After eruption, what does the REE give rise to?

junctional epithelium, gingival attachment

HERS are supposed to dissolve, if it doesn't dissolve disolve its remnants are known as what?

Rests of Malassez; have potential to form cysts

What are remnants of the dental lamina known as?

Rests of Serres

Keratinization of the attached gingiva ends where?

free gingiva

What tissues are keratinized?

attached gingiva
hard palate

What tissues are non-keratinized?

alveolar mucosa
vestibular mucosa
buccal mucosa
floor of the mouth

what structures are specialized mucosa?

papillae of the tongue

enamel is how much mineralized?

96%

Dentin is how much mineralized?

70%

Cementum is how much mineralized?

50%

Bone is how much mineralized?

50%

What are incremental lines from mineralization called?

Lines of Retzius

What are ends of odontoblastic processes which cross the DEJ?

Enamel spindles

What dentin is deposited before completion of the root?

Primary dentin

What 2 dentins are primary and where are they located?

Mantle Dentin; 1st layer, immediately adjacent to the DEJ
Circumpulpal dentin; remaining dentin, adjacent to pulp

What dentin develops after the tooth is in occlusion?

Secondary dentin

the odontoblasts retreat from the basement membrane (DEJ), and form what?

dentinal tubules

Where are the cementoblasts located?

PDL

What are cementocytes and where are they located?

they're trapped cementoblasts located in the lacunae

Cementum is thinnest where?

Cervical portion, (CEJ); thickest at apex

Cementum is nourished by what?

PDL

What is the most numerous cell in the pulp?

fibroblasts

Pulp is full of what?

blood vessels
nerve fibers
fibroblasts
odontoblasts
histiocytes
pulp stones?

Periodontal ligaments are composed of what?

collagen and fibroblasts

How are the PDL's attached to cementum?

sharpey's fibers

What is the most numerous fiber?

Oblique

What is the most often missed mesial coronal and root concavity?

Max first pre-molar

What is the pre-molar most often to have 2 roots?

Max first pre-molar

Tooth with the longest root?

Max canine

Cuspid with occasionally bifurcated root (facial/lingual)?

Mandibular cuspid

Teeth most often fails to develop (missing)?

max 3rd molars or max lateral

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