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multiple choice questions

Policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to discrimination are known as
A) civil rights.
B) civil liberties.
C) human rights.
D) suffrage.
E) affirmative action.

A) civil rights.

Civil rights
A) is the other term for civil liberties.
B) are policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to discrimination.
C) involve the principles of criminal justice.
D) consist of legal and constitutional protections against the government.
E) can be divided into the great political freedoms and protections at the bar of justice

B) are policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to discrimination.

The phrase ʺall men are created equalʺ comes from the
A) Bill of Rights.
B) Constitution.
C) famous pamphlet, Common Sense.
D) Declaration of Independence.
E) Bible.

D) Declaration of Independence.

The concept that everyone should have the same chance is called equality of
A) distribution.
B) fate.
C) rewards.
D) results.
E) opportunity.

E) opportunity.

American society generally emphasizes equal
A) pay for equal work.
B) results.
C) rewards.
D) distribution.
E) opportunity

E) opportunity.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) The American Revolution was fought principally in the name of equality.
B) The delegates to the Constitutional Convention did not resolve the tension between
slavery and the principles of the Declaration of Independence.
C) Womenʹs rights were hotly debated at the Constitutional Convention.
D) Most colonists were eager to defend slavery.
E) all of the above

B) The delegates to the Constitutional Convention did not resolve the tension between
slavery and the principles of the Declaration of Independence.

Thomas Jefferson, who wrote in the Declaration of Independence ʺWe hold these truths to be
self evident, that all men are created equal,ʺ believed
A) that slavery was immoral.
B) in the principle of equal rewards.
C) that blacks were genetically inferior to whites.
D) that there were no differences among human beings.
E) that all people are created equal at birth, but become unequal over time

C) that blacks were genetically inferior to whites

The Fourteenth Amendment was one of three passed
A) during the 1960s.
B) directly following the Civil War.
C) during George Washingtonʹs administration.
D) during the Depression of the 1930s.
E) right after the Revolutionary War.

B) directly following the Civil War.

The Fourteenth Amendment specifically forbids the states from denying to anyone
A) freedom on the basis of race.
B) freedom of privacy.
C) the right to vote on the basis of race.
D) equal protection of the laws.
E) the right to vote on the basis of sex.

D) equal protection of the laws.

The first and only place in which the idea of equality appears in the Constitution is in the
A) Fourteenth Amendment.
B) Ninth Amendment.
C) Preamble.
D) First Amendment.
E) Declaration of Independence.

A) Fourteenth Amendment.

The concept of equality before the law was introduced to the Constitution in the
A) Fourteenth Amendment.
B) Preamble.
C) Fifteenth Amendment.
D) Sixteenth Amendment.
E) Thirteenth Amendment.

A) Fourteenth Amendment.

Over the last 100 years, the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment have become the vehicle
for
A) extending the right to vote to non-whites, women, and 18-year-olds.
B) expansive constitutional interpretation to outlaw arbitrary classifications which deny
equality under the law.
C) limiting the national governmentʹs ability to interfere in matters affecting individual
states.
D) government regulation of business and industry.
E) all of the above

B) expansive constitutional interpretation to outlaw arbitrary classifications which deny
equality under the law

Standards of review used by the Supreme Court in discrimination cases include all of the
following EXCEPT
A) inherently suspect.
B) more than reasonable.
C) reasonable.
D) intermediate, between reasonable and inherently suspect.
E) cautious.

B) more than reasonable

The courts have recently ruled that, under the Fourteenth Amendment, racial and ethnic
classifications by states in regard to any matter
A) are reasonable.
B) are unconstitutional.
C) are inherently suspect.
D) are not the proper business of the federal courts to consider, but are up to the states
individually.
E) are arbitrary, but usually reasonable.

C) are inherently suspect

Classifications by race and ethnicity have now been ruled by the Court to be acceptable only in
A) matters wherein certain races or ethnic groups show greater talent or less aptitude.
B) laws passed by Congress, not those passed by the individual states.
C) regard to rules and regulations of the armed forces.
D) laws seeking to remedy previous discrimination.
E) matters involving national security.

D) laws seeking to remedy previous discrimination.

Equal protection of the laws
A) means that laws cannot establish different standards for the treatment of different
groups.
B) is guaranteed in the original Constitution.
C) means that states have to make their laws promote equality among persons.
D) provides a rigid standard for constitutional interpretation.
E) does not deny states treating classes of citizens differently if the classification is
reasonable.

E) does not deny states treating classes of citizens differently if the classification is
reasonable.

The Supreme Court has ruled that racial and ethnic classifications are
A) legal if they are reasonable.
B) not covered by the Fourteenth Amendment.
C) inherently suspect.
D) never permissible.
E) exempt from the constitutional penumbras of the Bill of Rights.

C) inherently suspect.

Classifications based on gender have been ruled to be ________ by the decisions of the Court
in the past several years.
A) reasonable
B) strictly unconstitutional
C) sexist
D) inherently suspect
E) somewhere between inherently suspect and reasonable

E) somewhere between inherently suspect and reasonable

The first African immigrants to America were
A) clergy.
B) small shopkeepers.
C) kidnap victims.
D) farmers.
E) Nigerian ivory traders

C) kidnap victims.

Today the equal protection clause is interpreted broadly enough to do all of the following
EXCEPT
A) reapportion state legislatures.
B) prohibit job discrimination.
C) permit sexual harassment.
D) forbid racial segregation in the public schools.
E) none of the above

C) permit sexual harassment

In the case of ________, the Supreme Court ruled that a black man, slave or free, was ʺchattelʺ
and had no rights under a white manʹs government; it also ruled that Congress had no power
to ban slavery in the western territories.
A) Plessy v. Ferguson
B) Craig v. Boren
C) Dred Scott v. Sandford
D) Brown v. Board of Education
E) Amos v. Colorado

C) Dred Scott v. Sandford

In the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, the United States Supreme Court
A) voted unanimously to declare slavery unconstitutional and ʺbarbaric,ʺ thus causing the
southern states to secede.
B) ruled that all adult African-American men had a right to vote under the Constitution.
C) outlawed segregation laws which separated blacks and whites in all public places.
D) ruled that a black man, slave or free, was ʺchattel,ʺ and upheld slavery itself as
constitutional.
E) for the first time placed a geographic limit on the expansion of slavery, banning it west of
the Mississippi River.

D) ruled that a black man, slave or free, was ʺchattel,ʺ and upheld slavery itself as
constitutional.

The Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling was handed down by the Supreme Court
A) a few years after the Civil War.
B) in 1896.
C) during the Civil War.
D) in the 1950s.
E) a few years prior to the Civil War

E) a few years prior to the Civil War.

The ________ Amendment outlawed slavery in the United States.
A) Thirteenth
B) Nineteenth
C) Tenth
D) First
E) Equal Rights

A) Thirteenth

The Thirteenth Amendment
A) forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
B) gave African Americans the right to vote.
C) repealed the Twelfth Amendment.
D) established the principle of separate but equal.
E) repealed Prohibition

A) forbade slavery and involuntary servitude

The Thirteenth Amendment was passed
A) in 1920.
B) in 1850.
C) in the 1960s.
D) as one of the original Bill of Rights.
E) at the end of the Civil War

E) at the end of the Civil War.

The constitutional trail for securing equal rights for all Americans was blazed primarily by
A) women.
B) Hispanic Americans.
C) Asian Americans.
D) the American Indians.
E) African Americans.

E) African Americans

In Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Chief Justice Taney declared that
A) the importation of slaves into the United States was illegal, but slavery itself was not.
B) Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
C) a slave who had escaped to a free state became a free man.
D) slavery is inherently unconstitutional.
E) slavery can be practiced in the so-called free states.

B) Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories

Slavery was declared unconstitutional by the
A) Thirteenth Amendment.
B) Fourteenth Amendment.
C) Jim Crow laws.
D) Bill of Rights.
E) Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court case.

A) Thirteenth Amendment.

Jim Crow laws were those which
A) were enacted by Southern whites in the late nineteenth century to segregate African
Americans from whites.
B) the North enforced in the South in the Reconstruction era following the Civil War,
granting rights to former slaves.
C) sought to end segregation and bring the races into closer contact with one another.
D) justified slavery and set codes for slavesʹ behavior.
E) established slavery and contract law regulating the slave trade.

A) were enacted by Southern whites in the late nineteenth century to segregate African
Americans from whites.

The Supreme Courtʹs decision in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson
A) for the first time established race as a suspect classification and ruled that former slaves
must be granted land or otherwise compensated for their years of forced labor.
B) outlawed slavery.
C) stated that the principle of separate but equal public facilities for African Americans was
constitutional.
D) stated that the principle of separate but equal public facilities for African Americans was
unconstitutional.
E) ruled that slaves were chattel property and entitled to no rights under the Constitution.

C) stated that the principle of separate but equal public facilities for African Americans was
constitutional.

In the case of ________, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of races by law was
constitutional so long as the facilities that were separate were also equal.
A) Amos v. Alabama
B) Brown v. Board of Education
C) Plessy v. Ferguson
D) Craig v. Boren
E) Dred Scott v. Sandfor

C) Plessy v. Ferguson

Jim Crow laws
A) imposed legal segregation on African Americans in the South after the Civil War.
B) were an attempt to reimpose slavery in the South after the Civil War.
C) gave African Americans the right to vote in local elections in the South.
D) granted former slaves free land in compensation for their years of unpaid labor.
E) allowed African Americans to hold state and federal offices in the South after the Civil
Wa

A) imposed legal segregation on African Americans in the South after the Civil War.

In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson,
A) housing discrimination was forbidden.
B) the principle of ʺseparate but equalʺ was overturned.
C) school busing was allowed to remedy racial segregation.
D) United States citizenship and all rights that go with it were granted to former slaves.
E) the principle of ʺseparate but equalʺ was used to justify segregation.

E) the principle of ʺseparate but equalʺ was used to justify segregation.

During the first half of the twentieth century, the Supreme Court
A) paid more attention to the ʺseparateʺ than to the ʺequalʺ part of the separate but equal
doctrine.
B) allowed segregation in the armed forces.
C) upheld the legality of all-white primaries.
D) declared all Jim Crow laws unconstitutional.
E) all of the above

A) paid more attention to the ʺseparateʺ than to the ʺequalʺ part of the separate but equal
doctrine.

Legal segregation of the races was declared unconstitutional in the 1954 landmark ruling
known as
A) King v. University of Kansas.
B) Plessy v. Ferguson.
C) Dred Scott v. Sandford.
D) Craig v. Boren.
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

The Brown v. Board of Education decision overturned the Supreme Courtʹs 1896 ruling in
A) Craig v. Boren.
B) Dred Scott v. Sandford.
C) Marbury v. Madison.
D) Amos v. Alabama.
E) Plessy v. Ferguson.

E) Plessy v. Ferguson.

In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court
A) ordered the Topeka school district to spend more money on black schools.
B) enunciated the principle of equal but separate.
C) ruled that the visible signs of education were substantially equal between black schools
and white ones.
D) enunciated the principle of separate but equal.
E) ruled that school segregation was inherently unequal.

E) ruled that school segregation was inherently unequal

The Supreme Courtʹs ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was based on the legal argument
that segregation violated the ________ Amendment.
A) Fourteenth
B) First
C) Twenty-sixth
D) Nineteenth
E) Equal Rights

A) Fourteenth

De facto educational segregation occurs
A) by forced school busing to separate the races.
B) by forced school busing to integrate the races.
C) when segregated classrooms occur within an integrated school.
D) by law.
E) by the reality of neighborhood schools located in areas that happen to be racially
segregated.

E) by the reality of neighborhood schools located in areas that happen to be racially
segregated.

De jure educational segregation occurs
A) by constitutional amendment.
B) by law.
C) by forced school busing to integrate the races.
D) by the reality of neighborhood schools located in areas that happen to be racially
segregated.
E) from day-to-day depending on changing enrollments at a particular school.

B) by law.

In the case of ________, the Supreme Court upheld federal court rulings ordering busing of
students to achieve racially balanced schools.
A) Craig v. Boren
B) Plessy v. Ferguson
C) Brown v. Board of Education
D) Unified Transportation Co. v Madison County
E) Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg County Schools

E) Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg County Schools

The immediate reaction to Brown v. Board of Education (1954) was
A) the busing of students to achieve racially balanced schools.
B) the closing of schools in Topeka, Kansas.
C) passage of the Twenty-third Amendment to overturn the Brown decision.
D) the desegregation of public schools in the South.
E) increased enrollment in private schools by whites in the South and a threat to close
public schools.

E) increased enrollment in private schools by whites in the South and a threat to close
public schools.

After Brown v. Board of Education (1954), school integration in the South
A) was unaffected by the decision.
B) ended abruptly.
C) was completed within three years.
D) never changed.
E) proceeded very slowly

E) proceeded very slowly.

The case of Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg County Schools (1971)
A) prohibited busing for school integration.
B) permitted judges to achieve racially balanced schools through busing.
C) ruled that schools must set aside a federal judge-determined number of spots for blacks
before they would be considered desegregated.
D) gave state legislatures the power to determine school desegregation procedures in each
state.
E) ruled that schools could not limit the number of black students enrolled in an effort to
minimize desegregation.

B) permitted judges to achieve racially balanced schools through busing

The one institution most responsible for putting civil rights goals on the nationʹs policy agenda
was
A) Congress.
B) the presidency.
C) the courts.
D) the political parties.
E) the state governments.

C) the courts

All of the following were tactics of the Civil Rights Movement EXCEPT
A) marches.
B) civil disobedience.
C) sit-ins.
D) bus boycotts.
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

The Civil Rights Act of ________, the most important law since the Emancipation
Proclamation, made racial discrimination illegal in public accommodations throughout
America.
A) 1947
B) 1964
C) 1984
D) 1974
E) 1954

B) 1964

The ________ Amendment, adopted in 1870, guaranteed the right of African Americans to vote
at least in principle.
A) Nineteenth
B) Thirteenth
C) First
D) Fifteenth
E) Fifth

D) Fifteenth

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
A) made racial discrimination illegal in places of public accommodation.
B) forbade discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, national origin,
religion, or gender.
C) prohibited gender discrimination in the work place.
D) both A and B
E) neither A nor B

D) both A and B

Suffrage refers to
A) the practice of de facto slavery rather than de jure slavery.
B) the legal segregation of the races or of men and women in hotels, motels, restaurants,
and other public places.
C) the hardships endured to obtain civil rights for African Americans and equal rights for
women.
D) the legal right to vote.
E) the practice of shackling slaves working in fields so they could not run away.

D) the legal right to vote.

The legal right to vote is referred to as
A) civil liberties.
B) the grandfather clause.
C) civil rights.
D) suffrage.
E) coverture.

D) suffrage.

The grandfather clause was passed by Oklahoma and other southern states to
A) exclude blacks from having the right to vote in primary elections, though they could vote
in general elections.
B) guarantee the equal rights of senior citizens in employment.
C) deny African Americans the right to vote.
D) deny land to anyone whose grandfathers were not white.
E) distribute land to former slaves on the basis of how many generations they had served
on a particular plantation.

C) deny African Americans the right to vote.

The grandfather clause was ________ by the Supreme Court in the 1915 decision, Guinn v.
United States.
A) overlooked
B) established
C) declared age discrimination
D) found unconstitutional and outlawed
E) upheld as constitutiona

D) found unconstitutional and outlawed

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
A) established the first affirmative action programs.
B) ended discrimination in the purchase or rental of housing.
C) ended the white primary.
D) guaranteed minority groups the right to vote.
E) guaranteed equal access to hotels, restaurants, and other public accommodations.

E) guaranteed equal access to hotels, restaurants, and other public accommodations.

Blacks were first given the legal right to vote by the
A) Civil Rights Act of 1964.
B) Twenty-fourth Amendment.
C) Fifteenth Amendment.
D) Voting Rights Act of 1965.
E) Emancipation Proclamation

C) Fifteenth Amendment

To render African-American votes ineffective, several southern states used the ________, a
device that permitted political parties to choose their nominees in elections off limits to blacks.
A) suffrage
B) grandfather clause
C) poll tax
D) hidden ballot
E) white primary

E) white primary

The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964,
A) prohibited discrimination in employment or public accommodations based on race.
B) granted Negroes the right to vote.
C) outlawed the use of literacy tests in order to register to vote.
D) outlawed the grandfather clause and the white primary.
E) prohibited the use of poll taxes in federal elections.

E) prohibited the use of poll taxes in federal elections.

Poll taxes for federal elections were outlawed in the
A) Voting Rights Act.
B) Civil Rights Act of 1964.
C) Supreme Courtʹs Guinn v. United States decision of 1915.
D) Twenty-fourth Amendment.
E) Tax Reform Act of 1963.

D) Twenty-fourth Amendment.

One consequence of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was
A) dramatic increase in the number of African Americans registered to vote.
B) increased access of blacks to public accommodations.
C) the increased use of gerrymandering.
D) decreased involvement of federal officials in state election procedures.
E) an increase in segregation.

A) dramatic increase in the number of African Americans registered to vote.

The white primary
A) was the examination voters had to pass before being allowed to vote, designed to
prevent blacks from voting because they had been denied educational opportunities.
B) denied blacks the right to run for office in primary elections in the South.
C) excluded blacks from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real
electoral contests in the South.
D) denied blacks the right to vote in all southern elections.
E) allowed blacks to vote only in Republican primaries in the heavily Democratic South.

C) excluded blacks from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real
electoral contests in the South.

Native-American Indians were made citizens of the United States in
A) 1964.
B) 1924.
C) 1789.
D) 1868.
E) They were never made citizens of the United States.

B) 1924.

Which of the following statements about Native Americans is FALSE?
A) Native Americans are the oldest minority group in the United States.
B) Native Americans are guaranteed access to the polls, housing, and to jobs.
C) Native Americans were made citizens of the United States long before African
Americans received the same status.
D) The Indian Claims Act of 1946 established a means to settle financial disputes arising
from lands taken from the Indians.
E) Native Americans are the poorest minority group in the United States

C) Native Americans were made citizens of the United States long before African
Americans received the same status.

Hispanic Americans comprise approximately ________ percent of the United States
population.
A) 14
B) 5
C) 22
D) 10
E) 20

A) 14

The fastest growing minority group in the United States is
A) Native Americans.
B) African Americans.
C) Japanese Americans.
D) Hispanic Americans.
E) Asian Americans.

E) Asian Americans.

In the case of Korematsu v. United States, the Supreme Court
A) ruled that the removal of Japanese Americans from the west coast and their placement in
internment camps during World War II was barbaric and unconstitutional.
B) ruled just prior to World War II that Japanese Americans living in the United States had
to be repatriated to Japan.
C) upheld the constitutionality of the United States atomic bombing of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki.
D) upheld the constitutionality of the removal of Japanese Americans from the west coast
and their placement in internment camps during World War II.
E) ruled that restrictions on Japanese ownership of land in the United States were
unconstitutional.

D) upheld the constitutionality of the removal of Japanese Americans from the west coast
and their placement in internment camps during World War II.

The Supreme Court case of Korematsu v. United States (1944)
A) upheld the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War
II.
B) ruled that public discrimination against Japanese Americans is unconstitutional.
C) set the stage for the extension of equal rights to Japanese Americans.
D) awarded benefits to Japanese Americans interned during World War II.
E) upheld the prohibition of the ownership of land by people of Japanese descent.

A) upheld the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War
II.

The womenʹs rights movement was launched with the signing of the
A) Feminist Manifesto.
B) Emancipation Proclamation.
C) Seneca Falls Declaration.
D) Equal Rights Amendment.
E) Declaration of Independence.

C) Seneca Falls Declaration.

ʺCovertureʺ
A) was the combination of electric shock therapy and drugs once used to ʺcureʺ
homosexuals of their homosexuality.
B) was the legal doctrine that deprived married women of any identity separate from that
of their husbands.
C) is a term used to describe the time when minority groups will outnumber Caucasians of
European descent.
D) was the principle used to justify the internment of Japanese Americans during World
War II.
E) was the legal doctrine used to discriminate against Native Americans by placing them in
reservations.

B) was the legal doctrine that deprived married women of any identity separate from that
of their husbands.

The Nineteenth Amendment
A) gave women the constitutional right to vote.
B) outlawed the poll tax in federal elections.
C) repealed Prohibition.
D) gave African Americans the constitutional right to vote.
E) ended slavery

A) gave women the constitutional right to vote.

The ________ gave women the constitutional right to vote.
A) Bill of Rights
B) Fifteenth Amendment
C) Twenty-fourth Amendment
D) Equal Rights Amendment
E) Nineteenth Amendment

E) Nineteenth Amendment

From about 1920-1960, the feminist movement
A) experienced great growth and activity.
B) was in a period of hibernation.
C) was preoccupied with winning the right to vote.
D) concentrated on anti-war causes.
E) first coalesced as a significant political movement in the United States

B) was in a period of hibernation.

Alice Paul authored the Equal Rights Amendment, and unsuccessfully pushed for its passage
beginning in the
A) 1960s.
B) 1970s.
C) 1920s.
D) 1980s.
E) 1940s

C) 1920s.

Women were first given the right to vote by the
A) Suffrage Act of 1880.
B) Equal Rights Amendment.
C) Fifteenth Amendment.
D) Voting Rights Act.
E) Nineteenth Amendment.

E) Nineteenth Amendment.

Which of the following statements about the immediate consequence of women receiving the
right to vote is FALSE?
A) Many supporters of the right to vote accepted the traditional model of the family.
B) The feminist movement gained steam immediately after the right to vote was secured.
C) Winning the right to vote did not automatically give women equal rights, pay, and
status.
D) Many state laws continued to enshrine the traditional view of the family in public policy.
E) Gaining the right to vote did not eliminate many of the challenges facing women.

B) The feminist movement gained steam immediately after the right to vote was secured.

After passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, public policy toward women was
dominated by
A) protectionism.
B) the principle of equality.
C) coverture.
D) matriarchalism.
E) economic, but not political, advances

A) protectionism.

The feminist movement was reborn
A) when women became involved in the war effort during World War II.
B) when the Supreme Court made its decision in Roe v. Wade.
C) after the Civil War when women became inspired by the emancipation of the slaves.
D) during the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
E) when the Equal Rights Amendment was first introduced in the 1920s.

D) during the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.

Betty Friedanʹs book, ________, published in 1963, encouraged many women to question
traditional assumptions and to assert their rights.
A) A Handmaidʹs Tale
B) The Second Sex
C) The Female Eunuch
D) Women and Economics
E) The Feminine Mystique

E) The Feminine Mystique

In ________, the Supreme Court ruled that any ʺarbitraryʺ sex -based classification violated the
equal protection clause.
A) Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
B) Dred Scott v. Sandford
C) Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg County Schools
D) Reed v. Reed
E) Roe v. Wade

D) Reed v. Reed

In the case of Craig v. Boren, the Supreme Court ruled that
A) sex classifications would be treated by the Court as inherently suspect.
B) racial classifications were constitutional if they have a compelling, legitimate, and
rational purpose.
C) it would employ a ʺmedium scrutinyʺ standard: sex discrimination would be treated as
neither valid nor invalid.
D) sex classifications would be treated by the Court as valid.
E) all sex classifications were unconstitutional.

C) it would employ a ʺmedium scrutinyʺ standard: sex discrimination would be treated as
neither valid nor invalid.

In the case of Reed v. Reed (1971), the Supreme Court
A) struck down an Oklahoma law setting different legal drinking ages for men and women.
B) declared that a womanʹs place is in the home.
C) prohibited sexual discrimination in public schools.
D) held that any arbitrary sex-based classification violated the equal protection clause of the
Fourteenth Amendment.
E) declared that women are entitled to half the community property of a marriage when
there is a divorce.

D) held that any arbitrary sex-based classification violated the equal protection clause of the
Fourteenth Amendment.

The Supreme Court has voided each of the following sexual discrimination laws EXCEPT laws
that
A) provided for alimony payments to women only.
B) made statutory rape a crime for men only.
C) set a higher age for drinking for men than for women.
D) closed a stateʹs nursing school to men.
E) provided child support for women only

B) made statutory rape a crime for men only.

Which of the following is TRUE?
A) Many sex discrimination cases have involved men seeking equality with women.
B) The Supreme Court first struck down a law on the basis of sex discrimination in 1920.
C) The Supreme Court has so far struck down only a handful of laws for discriminating on
the basis of gender.
D) All of these are true.
E) None of these are true.

A) Many sex discrimination cases have involved men seeking equality with women.

The Equal Rights Amendment failed because
A) it was vetoed by the President.
B) the Supreme Court voided it as unconstitutional.
C) it did not win the required two-thirds vote in each chamber of Congress.
D) it was rejected by the United States Senate.
E) it fell three states short of sufficient ratification.

E) it fell three states short of sufficient ratification.

The ________ banned gender discrimination in employment by law.
A) Civil Rights Act of 1964
B) Fair Labor Standards Act
C) Supreme Court ruling in National Organization for Women v. Bank of America
D) Nineteenth Amendment
E) Gender Equity Act of 1972

A) Civil Rights Act of 1964

In considering gender discrimination in employment and business activity, the Supreme Court
has ruled that any prerequisites based on gender or appearance
A) fall within the penumbra of the commerce clause, and thus enjoy its constitutional
protection.
B) are unconstitutional.
C) must have a direct relationship with the duties required in a particular position, or are
otherwise discriminatory.
D) can be accepted as non-discriminatory if the requirements have a longstanding tradition
in the industry.
E) are matters of private business concern and therefore not under the protection of the
Constitution.

C) must have a direct relationship with the duties required in a particular position, or are
otherwise discriminatory.

Which of the following statements about the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is FALSE?
A) The ERA was ratified in 1982.
B) The ERA battle stimulated vigorous feminist activity.
C) The ERA battle stimulated vigorous anti-feminist activity.
D) The ERA was first introduced in the 1920s.
E) Congress passed the ERA in 1972.

A) The ERA was ratified in 1982.

The United States Supreme Court has handed down each of the following decisions
concerning gender discrimination in employment and business activity EXCEPT
A) requiring the federal government to give women equal pay for jobs of comparable worth.
B) prohibiting gender discrimination in private business and service clubs.
C) voiding laws and rules barring women from jobs through arbitrary height and weight
requirements.
D) protecting women from being required to take mandatory pregnancy leaves from their
jobs.
E) None of the above; the court has handed down each of the decisions above.

A) requiring the federal government to give women equal pay for jobs of comparable worth.

The issue of ________ deals with women seeking to redress the fact that jobs traditionally held
by men tend to pay far greater salaries than jobs requiring similar skills but are traditionally
held by women.
A) gender equality
B) affirmative action
C) feminized wage scales
D) comparable worth
E) the lace purse

D) comparable worth

ʺComparable worthʺ refers to the issue of
A) paying men and women equivalent salaries for jobs requiring similar skills.
B) government subsidization of women who choose to work at home.
C) the inherent dignity and equality of women with men.
D) reduced work responsibilities for women workers with children.
E) equal voting rights and access to public office for women.

A) paying men and women equivalent salaries for jobs requiring similar skills

Which of the following is TRUE?
A) Women are prohibited from serving as combat pilots.
B) Women are prohibited on navy warships.
C) Women are now allowed in ground combat units.
D) Both men and women must register for the draft at age 18.
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

Which of the following statements about women in the military is FALSE?
A) Congress has opened all the service academies to women.
B) Women, as well as men, are now required to register for the draft.
C) Statutes and regulations prohibit women from serving in most combat situations.
D) Women have served in every branch of the armed services since World War II.
E) Women do not have a ceiling on the rank they can achieve.

B) Women, as well as men, are now required to register for the draft.

The Persian Gulf War showed that
A) women could serve as combat pilots.
B) women would not volunteer for combat positions.
C) there is no place in the military for women.
D) women did well in the military, but should not serve in combat positions.
E) womenʹs military performance was inferior to menʹs.

A) women could serve as combat pilots

In 1993, the Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment is sex discrimination that violates the
Civil Rights Act when
A) the target objects a second time to touching, body language, or dirty talk.
B) it causes severe psychological injury.
C) the workplace environment becomes hostile or abusive.
D) an employee can no longer perform his or her job.
E) the target suffers a nervous breakdown.

C) the workplace environment becomes hostile or abusive.

In Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998), the Supreme Court held that
A) school districts can be held liable for sexual harassment.
B) the military can not be responsible for sexual harassment at conferences.
C) employers are responsible for preventing and eliminating sexual harassment.
D) government entities are not responsible for preventing sexual harassment.
E) none of the above

C) employers are responsible for preventing and eliminating sexual harassment.

The 1991 convention of the Tailhook Association of naval aviators experienced a celebrated
case of sexual harassment when
A) the commanding officer scattered his pubic hairs upon the desks of some of his female
secretaries.
B) the commander-in-chief of the armed forces asked a female aviator up to his hotel room
ostensibly for business and then unzipped his pants, showed her his penis, and asked for
oral sex.
C) some men secretly videotaped their sexual encounters and then showed them at the
convention.
D) male aviators lined a hotel hallway and groped and kissed women trying to get to their
rooms.
E) All of these; it was a really sordid affair.

D) male aviators lined a hotel hallway and groped and kissed women trying to get to their
rooms.

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