# LSAT nuggets

## 109 terms

### Since

Premise indicator

### Because

Premise indicator

### For

Premise indicator

### As

Premise indicator

### After All

Premise indicator

### Moreover

Premise indicator

Premise indicator

### Given that

Premise indicator

### Therefore

Conclusion indicator

### Thus

Conclusion indicator

### Hence

Conclusion indicator

### So

Conclusion indicator

### As a result

Conclusion indicator

### Consequently

Conclusion indicator

### It follows that

Conclusion indicator

### It is clear that

Conclusion indicator

### If

Sufficient indicator

### When

Sufficient indicator

### Whenever

Sufficient indicator

### All

Sufficient indicator

### Any

Sufficient indicator

### Each

Sufficient indicator

### Every

Sufficient indicator

### Then

Necessity indicator

### Only

Necessity indicator

### Only if

Necessity indicator

### Only when

Necessity indicator

### Needs

Necessity indicator

### Requires

Necessity indicator

### Must

Necessity indicator

### If and only if

Sufficient & Necessary

### Unless

Replace with "if not", sufficient indicator

### Until

Replace with "if not", sufficient indicator

### Without

Replace with "if not", sufficient indicator

### Except

Replace with "if not", sufficient indicator

### 3 Families of Questions

1) Implication
2) Characterization
3) Operation

### "Or" meaning

One or the other or both

Not A AND Not B

### "Not Both" meaning

Either not A or not B

### "Logical Force" definition

A measure of how strong/weak statements are

### Logical Force determinants

modality & quantification

### "Modality" definition

the degree of necessity expressed by a proposition

### "Quantification" definition

the proportion of a group that has a certain property

### 3 levels of modality

1) necessity, 2) probability, 3) possibility

### 3 levels of quantification

1) everybody, 2) most, 3) some

### 3 Primary of RC Passages

1) Thesis, 2) Antithesis, 3) Synthesis

### BP RC Method Steps

1) ID subject matter, 2) ID primary structure, 3) ID author role, 4) tag passage, 5) mark up passage, 6) isolate 2ndary structure

### BP Author Roles

1) Absent, 2) Present

Quantifier, 100%

Quantifier, >50%

Quantifier, >0%

Quantifier, 0%

### Valid All + Some

A->B, A-s->C = B-s->C

### Invalid All + Some

A->B, B-s-C = A-s->C

### Valid All + Most

A->B, A-m->C = B-s-C or A-m->B, B-m->C = A-m->C

### Invalid All + Most

A->B, B-m->C = A-m->C

### Valid Most + Most

A-m->B, A-m->C = B-s-C

### Invalid Most + Most

A-m->B, B-m->C = A-m->C

Box around

Underline

Circle

Bracket

### Implication Family

Draw an inference.
* Each statement in the stimulus treated as though it is true.

### Characterization Family

Describe an argument.

### "must be true"

Implication family

### "is most strongly supported"

Implication family

### "must be false"

Implication family

### "main point"

Characterization family

### "method of argumentation"

Characterization family

### "flow"

Characterization family

### "role of a particular claim"

Characterization family

### "the argument proceeds by"

Characterization family

Operation family

Operation family

Operation family

Operation family

### Operation Family

Requires the performance of an operation on the stimulus.
* Each answer choice treated as though it were true.

### Steps to breaking down argumentns

1) locate & underline the conclusion
2) find the relevant premises
3) ID any assumptions

### The only

Sufficient indicator

### "will"

Strong logical force

### "must"

Strong logical force

### "is"

Strong logical force

### "are"

Strong logical force

### "do"

Strong logical force

### "does"

Strong logical force

### "always"

Strong logical force

### "all"

Strong logical force

### "any"

Strong logical force

### "every"

Strong logical force

### "almost all"

Strong logical force

### "probably"

Moderate logical force

### "likely"

Moderate logical force

### "usually"

Moderate logical force

### "most of the time"

Moderate logical force

### "majority of the time"

Moderate logical force

### "most"

Moderate logical force

### "majority"

Moderate logical force

### "may"

Weak logical force

### "might"

Weak logical force

### "can"

Weak logical force

### "could"

Weak logical force

### "often"

Weak logical force

### "sometimes"

Weak logical force

### "occasionally"

Weak logical force

### "significant number"

Weak logical force

### "several"

Weak logical force

### "many"

Weak logical force

### "few"

Weak logical force

### "some"

Weak logical force