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Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through

REM sleep

Research indicates that the percentage of total sleep spent in REM sleep is higher in ________ than in ________

infants; adults

Sleep deprivation ________ the production of body fat by ________ levels of the stress hormone cortisol

stimulates; increasing

A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as

sleep

Bats need a lot of sleep because their high waking metabolism produces ________ that are toxic to neurons.

free radicals

Sleep is necessary because...

1. Sleep may have evolved because it kept our ancestors safe during potentially dangerous periods.
2. Sleep encourages growth through a hormone secreted during Stage 4.
3. Sleep gives the brain time to heal, as it restores and repairs damaged neurons.

According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to

its underlying but censored meaning.

The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes.

90

Behaviorism encouraged psychologists to ignore the study of

consciousness.

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates

selective attention.

The cocktail party effect provides an example of

selective attention.

Consciousness is defined in the text as

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Parallel processing is to serial processing as ________ is to ________.

the unconscious; the conscious

The ability to pay attention to only one voice at a time is called

the cocktail party effect.

A large amount of our mental activity occurs outside our awareness thanks to our capacity for

dual processing.

What are 3 theories of dreaming mentioned in the text?

1. Dreaming stimulates the developing brain.
2. Dreams result from random neural activity originating in the brainstem.
3. Dreams facilitate information processing.

Sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?

Stage 2

According to Freud, the dreams of adults can be traced back to

erotic wishes.

During the course of a full night's sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in

REM sleep than in Stage 4 sleep.

The absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin has been linked to

narcolepsy.

Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that

people are more likely to dream of failure than of success.

After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to

have very relaxed muscles.

The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called

sleep spindles.

The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is

inattentional blindness.

Research participants picked one of two photographed faces as more attractive. When researchers cleverly switched the photos, participants readily explained why they preferred the face they had actually rejected. Their behavior illustrated

choice blindness.

Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates

selective attention.

When Jason briefly turned to summon the waiter, his wife quickly switched her glass of red wine with his glass of white wine. Jason's failure to notice that his chosen wine had been replaced best illustrates

change blindness.

Concluding his presentation on levels of information processing, Miguel states that

conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.

Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively

slow and especially effective for solving new problems.

Parallel processing is to serial processing as ________ is to ________.

the unconscious; the conscious

Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?

Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime.

Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessations of breathing while asleep?

sleep apnea

Exposure to bright light causes the

pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.

Our inability to fall asleep early, as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of

the circadian rhythm.

People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ________ theory of dreaming.

information-processing

At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues, we can expect an increasing occurrence of

REM sleep.

Reacting to visual stimulation that we do not consciously perceive illustrates

dual processing.

Ohio State University pedestrians were more likely to cross streets unsafely if they were talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of

selective attention.

As defined by the text, consciousness includes...?

1. sleeping
2. hypnosis
3. focused attention

In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrated

inattentional blindness.

The ability to simultaneously monitor the shape as well as the color of an object best illustrates the value of

dual processing.

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