Ch. 26, 27, 28, 30 Pysch

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Memory is best defined as

the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ________ memory.

long-term

To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory.

working

The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of

working memory.

A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory.

long-term

Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eye-blink response when the ______ is temporarily deactivated during the process of training.

cerebellum

Our short-term memory span is approximately ________ items.

7

Studies demonstrate that learning causes permanent neural changes in the ________ of animals' neurons.

synapses

Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of

semantic encoding.

The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called

semantic encoding.

Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is

rehearsed.

Although you can't recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm, you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. Evidently, your ________ encoding of the answer was ________.

visual; automatic

Research reports of repression and recovered memories indicate that

extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well remembered.

As we retrieve memories from our memory bank, we often alter them based on past experiences and our current expectations. This best illustrates

memory construction.

When asked how they felt 10 years ago regarding marijuana issues, people recalled attitudes closer to their current views than to those they actually reported a decade earlier. This best illustrates

memory construction.

The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of

working memory.

Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.

sensory memory

After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory.

short-term

The cerebellum plays a critical role in ________ memory.

implicit

After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from

amnesia.

Echoic memory refers to

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.

Karl Lashley trained rats to solve a maze and then removed pieces of their cortexes. He observed that storage of their maze memories

was not restricted to specific regions of the cortex.

Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of

rehearsal.

Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as

automatic processing.

Your relative success in recalling various items one day after you first heard them listed in order is likely to illustrate

a primacy effect.

Chunking refers to

the organization of information into meaningful units.

The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve

interference

Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word ?smashed? in relation to the accident later recalled

broken glass at the scene of the accident.

As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustrates

source amnesia.

Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.

retention; acquisition

The three steps in memory information processing are

encoding, storage, retrieval.

After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory.

short-term

The process of encoding refers to

getting information into memory.

A baseball strikes Ashley in the head and she is momentarily knocked unconscious. The physical injury, though not serious, is most likely to interfere with Ashley's ________ memory.

short-term

Iconic memory refers to

photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second.

In Sperling's memory experiment, research participants were shown three rows of three letters, followed immediately by a low, medium, or high tone. The participants were able to report

any one of the three rows of letters.

The rear area of the ________ grows bigger the longer a London cab driver has been navigating the maze of city streets.

hippocampus

According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those

in the middle of the list.

Memory techniques such as acronyms and the peg-word system are called

mnemonic devices.

Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?

Ebbinghaus

Which type of word processing?visual, acoustic, or semantic?results in the greatest retention?

semantic

Repeating someone's name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for

rehearsal.

Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be

distorted by our current assumptions.

When children are interviewed about their recollections of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially UNRELIABLE if

they are asked specific questions about things that didn't happen.

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