Bio Chapter 8 Mitosis

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Biology

chromosomes

structures that hold most of organism's DNA, which is duplicated and inherited. They are allocated to opposite sides of the parent cell.

cell division

the reproduction of cells

Binary Fission

1. chromosomes duplicated
2. chromosome duplication progresses + membrane grows
3. cell reaches twice its initial size, two daughter cells divide

chromatin

- combination of protein and protein molecules
- as a cell prepares to divide, chromatin forms compact disks called chromosomes

sister chromatids

- consist of 2 copies of chrosomes; identicle DNA molecules
- joined tightly together at the center w/ centromeres

cell cycle

the sequence of a cell in where it divides

interphase

cell's metabolic activity is very high; where G1, S and G2 occurs

Mitotic phase (M phase)

- about 10% of cell cycle
- Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

cytoplasm is divided in two
- (animal cell) clevage furrow
- (plant cell) cell plate

interphase

- a cell grows and prepares for division
- takes in ATP

Prophase

- chromatin turns into chromomes
- disintegration of nuclear envelope + nucleolus
- centrosomes grow and begin to move towards centers

Metaphase

-spindles going to opposite poles
- sister chromatids connected to spindles at equator

anaphase

- spindles fully formed on both poles
- sister chromosomes separated
- sister chromosomes separated at centromeres and start to be attracted towards poles

telophase

-chromatin starts to form
- on opposite sides
- nucleoli appear

anchorage dependence

- cells must be in contact w/ a solid surface

density-dependence inhibition

cells stop dividing when they touch one another

growth factor

-is a protein secreted by cells that tell cells to divide or to stop dividing

cancer cells

- don't respond to cell cycle control system; continue to grow and divide rapidly
- can be dangerous or harmless
- can form tumors

tumors

- benign=harmless
- malignant=dangerous

metastasis

- when cancer cells form their own circulatory system to feed itself

Types of Cancer

-Carcinomas
-Sarcomas
- Lukemias
- Lymphomas

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