5 Differences between Meiosis and Mitosis
1. Mitosis occurs in all stomatic cells, meiosis occurs in reproductive cells only. 2. Mitosis chromosome number stays the same, meiosis chromosome number divides in half. 3. In Mitosis 2 cells are produced, in meiosis 4 cells are produced. 4. Mitosis has one division, meiosis divides twice. 5. Meiosis has crossing over and mitosis doesn't
haploid reproductive cells; Sperm and Egg
pairing of homologous chromosomes
Each pair of Homologous Chromosome
At what stage of meiosis does synapsis occur?
Portions of chromatids may break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
the production of mature egg cells
the production of mature sperm cells.
Explain the difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis:
Spermatogenesis produces 4 cells and Oogenesis produces one cell
The other 3 products of meiosis
Explain the difference between diploid and haploid. Why must sex cells be haploid?
Haploid cells have half the amount of chromosomes than diploid. Sex cells must be haploid because they combine to make a full diploid.
The transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
Who was Gregor Mendel, and what did he use to study heredity?
Mendel, a monk, used pea plants to study genetics and genetics.
Seven Traits Mendel Studied:
Plant Height, Flower Position along stem, Pod color, Pod Appearance, Seed Texture, Seed Color, Flower color
Difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination:
Self-Pollination is where a plant fertilizes itself. Cross-Pollination is when two plants fertilize together one with male
How did Mendel ensure that his plants did not self-pollinate?
He cut the specific parts of the plant off to not have one or the other.
a short piece of DNA telling the physical features of the organism.
Each of two or more alternative forms of a gene
pure of both alleles
true breeding parents
P generation the first filial generation
second filial generation
masked, or dominated
trait that did not appear in the F1 generation but reappeared in the F2 generation
Under what circumstances will an organism show a recessive trait?
if the organism is heterozygous it could reappear.
Law of Segregation
states that a pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes.
Law of Independent Assortment
states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes
the study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes
the genetic makeup
Example: Tt, TT, tt
the physical features
Example: Tall, Short
when both alleles of a pair are alike for that characteristic
when the two alleles in the pair are different for that characteristic
a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked
a cross in which 2 characteristics are tracked
in which an individual of unknown genotype with homozygous recessive.
F1 Offspring will have phenotype in between that of the parents, this relationship
Example: Red Allele X White Allele= Pink Flower
occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
Example: Blood Types are codominant
diagram to aid them in predicting the probably distribution of inherited traits in offspring
likelihood that a specific event will occur expressed as either a decimal, percentage or a fraction
ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
ratio of the offspring's phenotype