assembly of the estates of all France
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Belief in truth, process, science, and human emancipation
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
clergymen collectively (as distinguished from the laity)
a jail (literally, a French jail)
Reign of terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Declaration of the rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
a Caribbean island settled by Spaniards in 1493; a present day island that is divided into the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
English statesman famous for his oratory
John Stuart mill
English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873)
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, book addressed that lack of educational opprotunities for women; tried to improve the status of women
prejudice against Jews
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Otto Von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
King wilhelm I
King of Prussia who appointed Otto von Bismarck as his prime minister; led to the unification of Germany
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
the removal of trees
The interactions and relationships between organisms and their environment.
invented the cotton gin
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
founder of modern communism
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
a model textile factory cooperative community founded by Robert Owen
Putting out system
system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
the power source that made it possible to build factories away from running water
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
an idealistic (but usually impractical) social reformer
Military dictator; gained control after independence movements
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
The temporary union of the northern portion of South America after independence movements led by Simón Bólivar; ended in 1830
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
a peninsula in southwestern Asia that forms the Asian part of Turkey
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Empire
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power
freeing someone from the control of another
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
the most powerful members of a society
an educated and intellectual elite
parliament and House of Concillors whose members were popularly elected by all adults
The period of Japanese History from 1867 - 1912 during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito and Experienced Modernization.
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
Spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient.
a system of colonial government under which the governor and a council of advisers developed laws for the colony but local rulers were given the opportunity to exert some degree of authority.
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
a penal institution where prisoners are exiled (often located on an island from which escape is difficult or impossible)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
Indian soldiers in the British army
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)