← History 9 Exam shaping of the modern world Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Nationalism ... Definition of a Nation Nation shared culture shared political system recognition of being part of a state shared history shared language, shared religion shared values sense of community/pride Causes of Nationalism Nationalism when the people of a state have pride in it. A war, or national anthem or a good leader, or generally good situations, can cause nationalism. Nationalism as a Unifying force People can unite and band together because of nationalism Germany Uses nationalism as a unifying force Germany was having struggles uniting. Auto Van Bismark was a diplomat and Prime minister, he was the highest official of a monarch, and he united Germany. He united Germany with Nationalism. He strengthen the economy and the banking system and made a single currency and industrialized germany and Realpolitik ??increased shipping and optics and made chemicals Wilhelm I?? Italy nationalism Italy Had trouble uniting, people all over identified with different groups Like Germany, they had strong leaders help them build up their nationalism and unite. MAZZINI He founded young Italy. Young Italy tried to constitute Italy, as one, free, independent, republican nation. CAVOUR Was a Prime Minister. His long term goal was to end Austrian power in Italy. He negotiated a secret deal with Napoleon to have him aid Sardinia in case it faced a war with Austria. He then defeated Austria. GARIBALDI Wanted to create an Italian Republic, was a rebel leader. Recruited 1000 red shirts, and with the aid of Cavour, fought them against Sicily, and won. His troops met up with Sardinian troops and they defeated Papal states. And went on to unite Italy. ??President Emmanuel II?? Italy ultimately had power struggles Nationalism as a divisive force Austro-Hungarian Empire Hapsburg Empire, government did not want to change newspapers could not tell about demands of liberals government tried to limit industrial development so Empire split Austria and Hungary into two different states with different governments The nationalists were still unhappy and frequently messed up the government ottoman empire ottoman empire Huge empire, included a lot of nations crumbles because nations want there own freedom. Imperialism ... Who Who Places in Europe and America were the imperialist countries What What Imperialism was when powerful developed countries took over, for monetary and power reasons, other weaker countries. When When 19th and 20th century How How The Imperialist countries had superior governments and weapons to the countries that they were taking over, making it easy to dominate them. Why Why Imperialist countries wanted power and money and new places to trade Where Where Africa India, China, and Japan Imperialism Around the World ... Africa: European motives Europeans wanted the natural resources of Africa, and they wanted to gain power buy capturing parts of Africa. Berlin Conference: The Berlin Conference divided up Africa for the europeans, no africans were present at this conference meaning that the division of Africa was only convent for the Europeans, this caused some groups of people to be split apart, and forced other unrelated groups together. This messed up Africa internally for the future. African Resistance Africans tried to resist by fighting, however most of them failed. Ethiopians however succeeded, they westernized their culture, created a new government, and got advanced weapons, they were able to beat the french. Indian Imperialism ... India: India What happens? Who involved: Britain is alone When 1600s completed in 1858 with sepoy rebellion, and the placing of India under the british crown Why Want profit made British East India Co (BEIC) BEIC gains economic and political power (sphere of influence) exploits diversity of India, encouraged rivalries among princes power of Mughal empire declines, and Rise of BEIC power England forces Indians to fight in british army, called fighters sepoys sepoys had to do things against religion like bite amo cases made of animal fat and fight abroad sepoys rebel, they fail but England puts India under British crown ??Set back India?? China Imperialism ... China For many years China was not impressed by the crops of Europeans, this changed when England introduced the Chinese to Opium. Chinese people immediately got hooked on the new drug, and kept paying the british for it. The brits had finally successfully traded with the Chinese. The Chinese government was furious with England for introducing Opium. They began the Opium wars, the Chinese lost, and the British forced the Chinese into unfair treaties, that included less taxes British goods. ??Taiping Rebellion?? When the lower class revolted because the government had unfair taxes and was overall bad. ??Self Straightening/100days reform) ... Chinese Rejecting of Western Ideas The Chinese overall rejected ideas from the west, because they thought it was a threat to confucianism that had been working. This made them fall behind Japan Europe, and America Boxer Rebellion The boxer uprising was an anti-foreighn secret society trained in martial arts, to drive out foreign devils. The defeat caused even Chinese conservatives to support westernization. Japan Imperialism ... Japan Matthew Perry of America started to take over Japan. Japan was smart when they watched the English takeover of China, and they did not even try to put up a fight against America. Japan instead of rejecting Western Ideas, decided to accept them and use them to drive out America. The Meiji Restoration was when they learned as much as possible about western cultures and modeled their culture around what they learned. With this new knowledge they drove out America, and industrialized, and became an Imperialistic power, and eventually defeated China and Russia in wars. Definition of Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 1790s to 1860s where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. Reasons Why the Industrial Revolution took place in the 18th Revolution. Other Revolutions were taking place. Other Agricultural Revolution intentions and results New ways to clean and harvest crops. Led to better food and more of it. People were free to think about other things than getting food. population boom why? Lower death rates, better food, more of it. Bigger Families Energy Revolution needed new sources of energy, such as coal, moved to steam. Why did the industrial Revolution begin in England? (what does a country need to industrialize?) stable government, to fund industrial revolution, and people did not have to worry about turmoil in england. Changing Industries and New Innovations: textile, transportation, energy, communications, other inventions textiles clothing new factories telephone steam engines cars Effects of the Industrial Revolutions on different segments of populations , society and the world some places could not advance and industrialize. THey did not have stable government and resources. Urbanization living conditions, landscape, environment, leisure paper The new workplace factories mines, mills for all ages paper Class divisions Working Class New Middle Class Upper Class The working class is the class working in the factories, often former farmers middle class is composed of smart business men, traders, and investors upper class switched from owning land to owning factories Uneven spread of Industrialization some countries could industrialize because they had natural resources and stable government and the capital other could not, these countries fell further behing New Methods of doing business Big Business Factories Monopolies Cartels Join shared investment and stock Rise of big business BIg business could own factories and produce things more cheaply than before. Workers' reasons to ills of Industrialization and impact of efforts workers went on strikes and protested, and tried to get unions. unions unions ensured that workers had good enough conditions and were payed enough political reform-legislation-the vote gave workers vote, and a voice Violence -the Luddites the luddites were artisans, angered by big business taking there business, so they destroyed the machines in factory, they were also against poor treatment of factory workers. Religion methodism people had bad conditions so looked to religion to feel better. Methodism is believed to have kept the lower class from revolting Succes/ Failures of efforts. ... Philosophical Responses to Industrialization ... Laissez Faire Capitalism (adam smith, david ricardo, thomas malthus) Capitalism Free Market interaction between buyer and seller with no generated government intervention Supporters Thought Solutions to problems: 1. Fewer children spend money on family 2. No charity, people are on their own, dont need handouts 3. disease, warfare, famine natural ways to limit population Utilitarianism (jeremy bentham, John stuart mill) Most good for most people Mostly fee market, but gov steps in when necisary (US gov) Utopian socialism (robert owen) ... Communism (Karl Marx) No class system thought that eventually lower class would rise up and revolt and establish a class less society, in which everything is shared INDUSTRIALIZATION A BLESSING OR A CURSE (or little of both?) Both, advances technology, and and creates cities but causes much sadness because farmers are forced into bad conditions, and forces more people into bad situations, puts a lot of people out of work. Ultimately in the long run (like today) it was a good thing also bad because it left countries that could not develop even further behind EUROPEAN EXPLORATION EUROPEAN EXPLORATION EUROPEAN EXPLORATION Reasons for Exploration, Enabling Factors of Exploration Europeans explored for many reasons 1. They had a spirit of adventure (Coming from the renaissance) 2. The Kings wanted more power 3. The Kings wanted more land 4. There was a need for Cash Crops that could be found in the new lands the Europeans explored 5. The Europeans wanted to find a way to get to india over water 6. People wanted to spread their religion Europeans where able to Explore for many reasons as well 1. The Kings funded explorations 2. People had a spirit of adventure because of the renaissance 3. Because of the scientific revolution, the technology, such as accurate compasses and longitude and latitude enabled europeans to explore. EUROPEAN EXPLORATION Countries Exploring/Areas Explored The main countries that did the exploring where Spain, England Portugal, Netherlands and France They Explored The Americas, Africa (for slaves) and China EUROPEAN EXPLORATION Explorers Prince Henry Vasco De Gama Chris Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Hernando Cortes Prince Henry Was a portuguese king, and he sponsored many voyages, and had Cartographers chart places they explored Vasco De Gama portuguese explorer, he was commander of the first ships to sail from europe to india Chris Columbus Spanish Explorer, credited with the discovery of the Americas, led general awareness about americas in europe Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese explorer, sailed from atlantic to pacific through straight of MAGELLAN , led first ships to circumnavigate the globe Hernando Cortes Spanish Conquistador whose expedition cause the fall of the Aztec empire EUROPEAN EXPLORATION Impact of European Exploration/Expansion on the world China Africa South America and Europe if I don't know by now I do not deserve this school lls THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND Characteristics of new National state Centralized Power Separation of Church and state THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND Niccolo Machiavelli He believed that the most important thing was the survival of the state. He believed that all men are born evil, so laws must be in place assuming men are evil He believed both a great military, and great laws are necessary he thought there should be one powerful ruler and it is better for that ruler to be feared author of the prince THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND French Absolutism Henry IV Louis XIII (with Cardinal Richelieu) Louis XIV Henry IV Converts to Catholicism Edict of Nantes grants religious tolerance Reduce the power of nobles gives nobles some jobs in royal court (not very important ones) gives important jobs as royal bureaucrats to middle class makes them intendants wants a chicken every pot for peasants Richelieu smashes nobles waled cities and out lawed private armies crushed Huguenots' walled cities and private armies gives nobles hight posts in court and army similar goals to Henry IV Louis XIV Declared Sun God symbol of his power-Believed in Devine Right of Rule Uses Middle Class within bureaucracy (intendants) Creates Versalles puts Nobles in Versailles so they like him Incredible 300 thousand person French army wars abroad (mixed results) Economical growth=Mercantilism Revoked Edict of nantes (Huguenots) THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND English Constitutionalism James I, Charles I, Conflicts between Kings and Parliaments 1603-1642 James I, Charles I Conflict between kings and Parliament -Religion-Anglican kings (catholic leanings) vs. Parliament Puritans (protestants) -Power of Taxation -Power kings thought they had absolute power/Devine right Parliament divided power Rights THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND Civil War and Cromwell 1642-1649-Civil War Cavalier vs. Round Heads (Kings forces vs. Parliament forces) 1649 Roundheads Win led by Oliver Cromwell New Model Army 1649-1660 Rise of Common Wealth (by parliament and cromwell) execute Charles I abolish monarchy establish republic abolish House of Lords abolish church of England (he and parliament where anglican) mandatory church attendance classes down taverns, theaters, and pubs extends public education same dissension in England and Criticism of Cromwell Cromwell takes over as absolute ruler, declares himself Lord Protecter institutes martial law 1658-Cromwell dies son takes over and is incompetent THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND Restoration and Charles II 1660-1685 Restoration of Monarchy Charles II, good, re opes things, had nice coexistence with parliament 1685 Charles II dies THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND James II and Glorious Revolution (WIll and Mary) James II takes over, and antagonizes parliament 1688 James II forces forced out Parliament asks his daughter mary, to take over and she share rule with her husband WIlliam William and Mary must sign the Bill of Rights to become monarchs, and give power to Parliament. Glorious revolution (bloodless). Establishes sovereignty of Parliament, establishes critical right of the people (free speech, religion, trial by a jury, no cruel and unusual punishment) THE NEW MODERN STATE, THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND The Development of Cabinet and Prime Minister 1714-next 100 years Hanover dynasty takes over George I, II, III Leader of Parliament =Prime Minister and his/her cabinet THE ENLIGHTENMENT THE ENLIGHTENMENT THE ENLIGHTENMENT Inspirations and Goals of the Enlightenment It was a new way of thinking, an intellectual movement focussed on using reason to reform social institutions (government, religion, slavery, war) The Inspiration for the enlightenment was the renaissance and scientific revolution and the expansion happening at the time. The Enlightenment of the 18th Century culminated the movement toward modernity initiated by the renaissance This is true because during the Enlightenment, people completely focused more on using reason, and got away from relying on the church. This is how modern society is today, and it is in the spirit of the individual. THE ENLIGHTENMENT Hobbes Hobbes-Absolutism (the leviathan) Believed in Absolutism Thought people where naturally bad, so there needed to be one powerful ruler, with no religion to keep people in line THE ENLIGHTENMENT John Locke Agreed with Hobbes on a lot, but thought people had rights of life liberty and property. He thought there should be no one ruler, one ruler would be able to take away rights. He believed in Limited powers to protect peoples inalienable rights. Government was only there to protect the people's rights. THE ENLIGHTENMENT Montesquieu Believed in 3 branches, Legislative, Executive, and Judicial, to check power, he thought this was the best way to protect people's rights THE ENLIGHTENMENT Rousseau Direct Democracy Rule by the People Snap Shot of Western Europe Western europe was ruled by man empires. Government and religion where all powerful. There was centralized government, and and emphasis on warfare and conquering things. There where a lot of Social hierarchies. The Church (christian) was powerful and unquestioned. Arts and Architecture was mostly used to portray religious things, or for protection. It was not really used for pleasure. Incan South America, Safavid Persia, Mali and Songhai, Ottoman, Mughal India, Russia, Ming China,Tokugawa Japan. Incan South America Safavid Persia Mali and Songhai Ottoman Mughal India Russia Ming China Tokugawa Japan Major themes/values of the Renaissance (contrast with middle ages) Emphasis on the individual. Lots of inquiry, people had a lot of questions, and people questioned the church. There was a spirit of adventure in the Renaissance. View of themselves in history, a rebirth from middle ages renewed interest in Greece and Rome focus on human experience more than religion individual achievement spirit of adventure and curiosity focus on humanism/education/creativity less focus on religion study new things because they have more curiosity and questions that religion can not always answer want happiness in current world rather tan afterlife expanded exposure to other regions constant inquiry/ challenging peoples authority focus on trades and commerce and getting material goods Renaissance Ideals for men and women (The courtier) Men: Handsom, great shape, well mannered, good dancer, have a lot of knowledge in the humanities, good speaker. Women: Beautiful, good dancer, great shape, well mannered, knowledge of the humanities Developments in painting A) 4 break through techniques B) New subjects/themes A) oil on stretched canvas, perspective, Light and shadow, pyramid configuration B) Less focus on church more focus on the individual, and indi Principles of Architecture 4rs Rules Reason Rome 'Rithmetic Renaissance Art Slid Show 1.Branching out from religion in subject matter 2.focus on this world and humans creativity art as a profession wealth to fund art observations of the world realism Causes of the Protestant Reformation Pope where leading lavish life styles. The church was supporting the arts, and not teaching. Some clergy could not read latin, and so therefore could not translate the bible, so therefore where horrible clergy. The church was selling indulgences. People thought they could be more adventurous and challenge ideas so they challenged the church. The renaissance also made the popes want more lavish lives. So the reformation would not have been possible during any other time but the renaissance. Luther's Protests and 95 thesis Priest Tetzel was selling indulgences to finance the building of a church, Luther was outraged by this. Indulgences promised the buyer to get right in to heaven. Luther drew up the 95 thesis against the church. Role of the printing press Without the printing press, the 95 thesis would not have become popular, but with the printing press, it was able to go all around Europe and gain popularity, and helped start the reformation. Supporters of the Reformation where...? German Princes, German peasants, John Calvin Henry VIII German princes supported Reformation why? they thought it would take away power from the Catholic church German peasants supported Reformation why? they thought they could gain social change. They where actually stopped and many where killed by luther because he was in favor of social order. John Calvin supported Reformation why? he agreed with luther but changed his views slightly. Made another branch of protestantism. Henry VIII supported Reformation why? he wanted to divorce his wife, but the catholic church did not allow his divorce. he was so outraged that he switch to protestantism and took over the catholic church. He was powerful. And he was once a devout catholic. Critics of Reformation where ? Pope Leo X, Charles V, Pope Paul III, St. St. Ignatius of Layola, St. Teresa of Avila Pope leo X was a critic why? you should really know this but if you don't he was a pope....he did not want to lose power. he excommunicated luther. Charles V was a critic why? He was a king and closely connected to the pope. He summoned luther to a meeting, when luther did not give up his beliefs, he declared him an outlaw. league of augsburgh Pope Paul III was a critic why? reformed the catholic church council of trent inquisition supported jesoits St Ignatius was a critic why? Wanted to be a christian warrior. After his leg was messed up and he could no longer be a regular warrior. St. Teresa was a critic why? Devout catholic she thought there needed to be more strictness in the church and she started a society of nuns. Reformer of convents in spain. Consequences of Protestant and Catholic reformations The Catholic Church and Protestant Church split. people begin to travel the world, so that they can convert more people to their religion more people are able to challenge the church more persecution because of such religious pride fracturing of Catholicism disputes between Catholics and Protestants reform in the catholic church Ancient and medieval conception of the universe, body and learning The ancient conception of the universe was that revolved around earth. Science of course disproved this. Learning was mostly trade specific, and all other learning was mostly controlled by the government. Learning was not an emphasis point. Connection to the Renaissance weekend catholic church challenge established authority emphasis on the individual focus on mathematics, humanisms/education spirit of inquiry Scientific Revolution was only possible during the Renaissance because of those things people had questions that the church could not answer so they turned to science to answer those questions. New Values from Scientific Revolution People valued curiosity and adventurousness and education during the Scientific Revolution. This is a big contrast to when people valued mostly religion in the medieval times. Scientific Method This was an order of approaching a experiment. Ask a Question Do Background Research Construct a Hypothesis Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion Communicate Your Results The Mechanics of the universe Galileo Discovered the nature of a pendulum Created telescopes described the moon and some other planets accurately proved the heliocentric theory Kepler calculated the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun he calculated that planets moved in an ellipse not a circle Newton Invented calculas, formulated three laws of motion, discovered the theory of gravity Copernicus advanced the heliocentric theory The functioning of humans and other living organisms Vessalius studied human anotmy by disecting dead human. wrote a book about how the body works Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria microscopic organisms sperm cells and blood cells Invented high magnification microscopes WILLIAM HARVEY Discovered the circulatory system and how blood circulated in the body throughout the body and re used. He wrote a book. The chemical composition of matter Boyle discovered chemical composition of matter elements make up matter devised boyles law, describing the relationship between pressure, mass, temperature, and volume.