Life SpanChapter 6

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income comes to learn about surroundng. sensori motor intellignece, perception, memory, language development. Piaget's thory - 6 stages of sensorimotor intellignce are examind. Processing theory: compres cogition ways in which computers analyze data. Affordance of objects, perceptual abilities. habituation procedure, familiarity & seek something novel to later cognitive skill . 3 classic theories.

The first major theorist to realize that infants are active learners was _______________.

Jean Piaget

When infants begin to explore the environment through sensory and motor skills, they are displaying what Piaget called _________ intelligence. In number, Piaget described ___________stages of development of this type of intelligence.

sensorimotor; six

The first two stages of sensorimotor intelligence are examples of __________________ __________ _____________. Stage one begins with newborns' reflexes, such as __________and _______, and also the _______. It lasts from birth to _______________of age.

primary circular reactions; sucking;grasping; senses; 1 month

Stage two begins when newborns show signs of ______________of their __________and senses to the specifics of the environment. This process involves _____________and ________________. Describe the development of the sucking reflex during stages one and two.

adaptation; reflexes; assimilation;accommodation
Stage-one infants suck everything that touches their lips. By about 1 month, they start to adapt their reflexive sucking. After several months, they have organized the world into objects to be sucked to soothe hunger, objects to be sucked for comfort, and objects not to be sucked at all.

In stages three and four, development switches to _________________ ___________ ___________, involving the baby with an object or with another person. During stage three, which occurs between _____and ____months of age, infants repeat a specific action that has just elicited a pleasing response.
Describe a typical stage-three behavior.

secondary circular reactions: 4: 8
A stage -three infant may squeeze a duck, hear a quack and squeeze the duck again.

In stage four, which lasts from _____________ to ___________-months of age, infants can better _______________eventas. At this stage, babies also engage in purposeful actions, or _________dircted behavior.

8:12: anticipate; goal

(text and A View from Science) A major cognitive accomplishment of infancy is the ability to understand that objects exist even when they are _____________________. This awareness is called _________ _______. To test for this awareness, Piaget devised a procedure to observe whether an infant will ________for a hidden object. Using this test, Piaget concluded that the awareness does not develop until about _____of age. Most recent research studies have shown that this ability actually begins to emerge at ________months.

no longer in sight; object permanence; search; 8 months; 4.t

During stage 5, which lasts from ____to ____ months, infants begin experimenting in thought and deed. They do so through _________ _________ __________, which involve taking in experiences and trying to mak sense of them. Explain what Piaget meant when he described the stage-five infant as a "little scientist".

12;18;tertiary circular reactions
The stage-five "little scientist" uses trial and error in creative and active exploration.

Stage six, which lasts from _____ to ____ months, is the stage of anticipating and solving simple problems by using ________________ ____________. One sign that children have reached stage six is _________ _________, which is their emerging ability to imitate behaviors they noticed earlier.

18;24; mental combinations; deferred imitation

Two research tools that have become available since Piaget's time are _____________studies and _________, which reveals brain activity as cognition occurs

habituation; fMRI

Jean Piaget was the first major theorist to realize that each stage of life has its own characterisitic way of thinking: Sensorimotor development stages:
01- month

0-1 months reflexes; reflexive cries

1-4 months

first acquried adaptations (Stage 2); sucking a thumb for comfort but not sucking a whole hand

4-8 months

making interesting sights last (Stage 3); shaking a doll that says "Mama"

8-12 months

new adaptation and anticipation (Stage 4); pointing at a toy to get Dad to bring it to him or her

12-18 months

new means through active experimentation (Stage 5); pushing al the buttons on the remote control

18m - 24 months

new means through mental combinations (Stage 6); leanng that the furry little teddy bear isn't real but can be used for cuddling and security.

12. A 9 month old repeatedly reaches for his sister's doll, even though he has been told "no"many times. This is an example of ________ _________- _________________.

goal-directed behavior

13. Before putting her dolly to bed, 18m old Jessica sings her a song. According to Piaget, Jessica's behavior is an example of the use of

b. EEG
Jessica realizes the doll isn't real, bu tshe also knows she can do "real thing" with the doll.

14. 9 month old Akshay, who looks out of his crib for a toy that has fallen, is clearly demonstrating an understanding of ______________ ____________.

object permanence. Akshay knows that out of sight doesn't mean the object ceases to exist.

15. 6 month old Calysta sucks harder on a nipple, eveidences a change in heart rate, or stares longer at one image than at another when presented with a change of stimulus. This indicates that she

d.perceives some differencs between stimuli.
. In these baituation studies, the infant's increased attention indicates she perceives a difference from the previous stimulus.

16. A 20month old girl who is able to try out various actions mentally without actually having to perform them is learning to solve simple problems by using ______ ______________ .

mental combinatins. The child is able to think about something before actually doing anything, a major advance in cognitive development.

17. 7 m old Francisca is attempting to interact with her smilingmother. She is demonstrating an ability that typically occurs in stage _______________-of sensorimotor development.

four. this is the stage of new adaptation and anticipation. The infant becomes more deliberat and purposeful in respondng to people and objects.

18. Angelo realizes that sucking a pacifier is differnt from sucking a niple. Angelo is instage ____- of cognitive development.

two. This is the stage of first acquried adaptations,whn the infant accommodates and coordinates reflexes.

Information Processing:
19. A perspective on human cognition that is modeled on how computers analyze data is the _____-- _____--theory. Two aspects of this theor as apped to human dvelopment are ________________, which concern perception and so are analogous to computer input, and _________-, which iinvolves storage and retrieval of ideas, or output.

information-processing; affordances; memory

20. Much of the current research in perception and cognition has been inspired by the work of the Gibsons, who stress that perception is a(n) _____________-(active/passive/automatic) cognitive phenomenon.

active

21. According to the bGibsons, any objct in the environment offers diverse opportunities for interaction; this property of an object is called an ______________.

affordance

22. Which of these properties an individual perceives in an object depends on the idiidual's ___________ ________-and ____________ ____, on his or her ___________ _____, and on his or her ___________ ___- of what the object might be used for.

past experience; current development; immediat motivation; sensory awareness

23. A firm surface that appears to dropoff is called a ___________ _______-. Although perception of this dropoff was once linked to _________-maturity, later research found that infants as younga s _________-are able to perceive the dropoff, as eveidenced by changes nt heir _________ _____- and their wide open eyes.

visual cliff; visual; 3 months; heart rate

24. Perception that focuses on movement and change is called ___________ ______-. Antoehr universal principle of infant perception is ________ ___, which may have evolved because humans ______------by learning to attend to, and rely on, one another.

dynamic perception; people preference; survived

25. Babies have great difficulty storing new memories in their first _________________(how long?).

year

26. Research has shown, however,that babies can show that they rememberr when three condition are met.

1)experimental condtions are similar to real life;
2)motivation is high
3)retrieval is stregthened by remnders and repetition

27. When these condtions are met, infants as young as __-months "remembered" events rom two weeks earlier if they experienced a _______ _____-prior to retesting.

3; reminder session

28. After about ______- months, infants become capable of retaining information for longer periods of time, with less training, repetition, or reminding.

6

29. PET scans and fMRI studines reveal that one region of the ________-is devoted to memory for _______-and other regions to memory for ___________________. Memory for routines that remains hidden until a stimulus triggers it is called _________________ _______-. Memories that can be recalled on demand are referred to as __________ _______________. The region of the brain that this latter type of memory depends on is the _________. This brain region remains immature until about age _____________-.

brain; faces; sounds; events; sights; phrases, and much more; implicit memory; explicit memory; hippocampus; 5 or 6 .

30. evidence of dynamic perception during infancy.

Natalia prefers looking at her spinning mobile to her stationary teddy bear.
Natalia has formed simple expectations of the path that mobile will follow
Natalia uses movement cues to discern the boundaries of the moving clown.

This is perceptual constancy.: Natalia quickly grasps that even though this clown loos different whn seen from different viewpoints. It is still the same clown.

31. 18 month old emma sees a large, round raised area on her mother's computer modern. She immediately presses the area with her fingers. James Gibson would say that Emma has perceived the moden button's ______________.

affordance

32. Professor Nonrman frequently uses examples of how computers and analyze data to help the calss understand how human memory works. Professor Norman evidently is a fan of ____ ________-

c. inforamtion-processing theory.
Inforamtion-processing theory compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data.

33. children the world over ______________(follow/do not follow) the same sequence of early language development. The timing of this sequence and depth of ability _____________(vary/do not vary).

follow; vary

34. Newborns show perference for hearing _______-over other sounds, including the high-pitched, simplified adult speech called ________-_______speech, which is sometimes called _______________ ____________.

speech; child-directed; baby talk (or motherese)

35. By 4 month of age, most babies' verbal repertoire consists of _______________ ______.

squeals, growls, gurgles, grunts, croons,and yells

36. Between __________-and __________-months of age, babies begin to repeat cetain syllables, a phenomenon referred to as _______________..

6:9: babble

37. Babbling is ______________-- _____________-, so although deaf babies babble at first, they stop because they can't hear responses. Deaf babies may also use _______________ _____________- to babble.

experience-expectant; hand gestures

38. The average baby speaks a few words at about ____________of age. They understand ___________________(more/fewer) words than they speak.

1 year ; more

39. Another characteristic of infant language development is the use of the __________, in which a single word expresses a complete thought. Variations of tone and pitch, called __________, are extensive in babbling and in this later form of speech.

holophrase; intonation

40. When vocabulary reaches approximatell 50 expressed words, it suddenly begins to build rapidly, at a rate of _________-more words a month. This language spurt is called the _______________ _____-- bcause toddlers learn a disproprtionate number of __________________.

50 to 100 naming explosing; nouns

41. Language acquisition may be shaped by our __________, as revealed by the fact that Enlish-speaking infants learn more __-than Chinese or Korean infants, who learn more ________________. Alternatively, the entire ____________ _________may determine language acquisition.

culture; nouns; verbs; social context

42. Children begin to produce their first two-word sentences at about _______________months, showing a clearling emerging understanding of ____________________, which refers to all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning, apart from the words themselves. A child's grammar correlates witht he size of his or her ____________________.

21; grammar; vocabulary

Reinforcement and other conditoning processes account for language development, according to the learning theory of ________________. One study that followed mother-infant pairs over time found that the frequency of early ________________ __________-predicted the child's rate of language acquisition many months later.

B.F.Skinner; maternal responsiveness

44. According to the ________- ________-heoery, infants communicate because they are ________-being. Thus, ___________ ___-,n ot explicit ___, lead infants to learn language.

social-pragmatic; social; social impulses; teaching

45. The theorist who stressed that language is too complex to be mastered so early and easily through conditioning is ________________. Because all young children ____________(master/do not master) basic grammar at about the same age, there is, in a sense, a __________ ______-. This theorist also meaintained that alll children are born with a LAD, or ___________- ___________ _______, that enables children to quickly derive the rules of grammar from the speech they hear. Summarize the research support for theory three.

Noam chomsky; master; universal grammar; language acquistion device
Support for this theory comes from the fact that all bablies babble ma-ma and da-da sounds. No reiforcemnt isneeded. Infants merely need dendrites to grow, mouth muscles to strengthen, neurons to connect, and speech to be heard.

46. A new _______- theory combines aspects of several theories. A fundamental aspect of this theory is that ____________ _____________-.

hybrid; some learrning of language is best explained by one theory at one age and other aspects by another perspective at another age.

47. Age, Sensorimotor Stage, Langage Milestones
a. 0-1month

reflexes (Stage 1); crying, facial expressions

47b. 1-4month

first acquired adaptations (Stage 2); cooig, laughing, squealing, growling, crooning, vowel sounds

47.c. 4-8 month

making interesting sights last (Stage 3) ; babbling at 6 months

47.d. 8-12 month

new adaptation and anticipation (Stage 4) at 10 months, comprehension of simple words; speechlike intonations.

47. e. 12-18 month

new means through active experimentation (Stage 5); first spoken words at 12 months; vocabulary growth up to about 50 words.

47. f. 18-24 month

new means through mental combinations (Stage 6); thre or more words learned per day, first two-word sentences at 21 months, multiword sentences at 24 months.

48. At about 21 months. Darrell, who s typical of is age group, will

c.put words together to form rudimentary sentences.
The first two-word sentences is uttered at about 21 months

49. As an advocateof the social-pragmatic theory.Professor Caruso believes that

a. infants communicate in every way they can because theya re social beings.
b. biolgical maturation is a dominant force in language development: is more consistent with Noam Chomsky's theory
c. infants' language abilities mirror those o fhteir primary caregivers: would b based on B.F. Skinner's earning theory,
d.. language develops in many ways for many reasons: is consistant with the hybrid theory.

50. As soon as her babysitter arrives, 21month old Christine holds on to her mohter's legs and , in a questioning manner, says "bye'bye." Because Christine clearly is "asking" her mother not to leave, her utterance can be classified as a ________________.

holophrase.
These are one-word utterances that express a compete, meaningful thought.

51. 6 month Lars continually repeats a variety of sound combinations such as "ba-ba-ba." This form of language is called ____________.

babbling.
this form of speech, which begins between 6 and 9 moonths of age, is characterized by the extended repetition of certain syllables (such as "ma-ma"0.

52. Monica firmly believes that her infant daughter "taught" herself language because of the seemingly effortless manner in which in which she has mastered new words and phrases. Monica is eveidently a proponent of the theory proposed by _______.

Noam chomsky.
chomsky and his followers believe that language is too complex to be learned through reinforcemnet alone.

53. Like most Korean toddleers, Noriko has acquired a greater number of __________________(nouns/verbs) in her vocabulary than her North Amerian counterparts, who tend to acquire more _______________(nouns/verbs).

verbs; nouns.
Korean is considered a verb-friendly language, because verbs appear at the begiinning of sentences. North Americans use nouns firs in their sentences.

PT 1: a. In genteral terms, the Gibsons' concept of affordances emphasizes the indea that the individual perceives an object in terms of its

c. function or use to the individual

2. According to Piaget, whn a baby repeats an action tha thas just triggered a pleasing response from heis her caregiver, a stage _______behavior has occurred.

c. three

3. Sensorimotor intelligence begins with a baby's first

b. reflexes
This was Piaget's most basic contribution to the study of infant cognition-that intelligence is revealed in behavior at every age.

4. Piaget and th eGibsons would most likely agress that

c. learning and percetion are active cognitive precesses
b. This is chomsky's position: language development is biologically predisposed in children

5. Toward the end of the first year, infants usually learn how to

aaccomplish simple goals
b&c. These abilities are not acquired until children are much older: amnipulate various symbols & solve complex problems.
d. Pretending is associated with stage six(18 to 24 months)

6. When an infant begins to understand that objects exist even whent hey are ot of signt,she or he has begun to understand the concept of object __________

c.permanence

7. Today, most cognitive psychologist view language acquisition as

d. determined by both biological maturation and learning

8. Despite cultural differences, children all over the world attain very similar language skills

b.in the same sequence according to a variable timetable
a,c, &d. Children the world over follow the same sequence, but the timing of their accomplishments may vary considerably: acording to ethnically specific timetable & according to culturally specific timetables & according to timetables that vary from child to child.

9. The average baby speaks a few words at about

c. 12 months

10. A single word used by toddlers to express a complete thought is

a. a hol0phrase
b. Child-directed speech is the speech adults used with infants
c. Babblng refers to the first syllables a baby utters.
d. An affordance is an opportunit for perception and interaction.

11. A distinctive form of language, with a particular pitch, structure, etc., that adults use in talkng to infants is called ___________-

c. child-directed speech.
a. A holopharase is a single word uttered by a toddler to express a complete thought.
b. According to Noam Chomsky, the LAD, or landguage acquisition device, is an innate ability in humans to acquire language.

12. Habituation studies reveal that most infants detect the difference between a pah sound and bah sound at ___-

b. 1 month

13. The imaging technique in which the brain's magnetic properties indicate activation in various parts of the brain is called a (n) ______-

c. fMRI

Matching Items:
1. people preference

c. percetion that focuses on movemnet and change.
a&b. In Piaget's theory, these refer to processes by which mental concepts incorporate new experiences (assimilation) or are modified in response to new experiences (accommodation).
d.Dynamic perception is perception tha tis primed to focus on movement and change.

2. affordances

a. getting used to an object or event after repeated exposure to it.
b. Secondary circular reactions involve the baby with an object or with another person.
c. Tertiary circular reactions involve active exploration and experimentation, rather than mere reflexive action.

3. object permanence

f. the innate attraction of huma babies to hums

4. Noam Chomsky

g. opportunities for interaction that an object offers

5. B.F. Skinner

e. the realization that something that is out of sight continues to exist

6. sensorimotor intelligence

j. theoriest who believed that language ability is innate

7. babbling

h. theorist who believed that veral behavior is conditioned

8. holophrase

k. thinkng through the senses and motor skills

9. habituation

b. repetitve utterance of certain syllables.

10. deferred imitation

i. a single word used to express a complete thought

11. dynamic perception

a. getting used to an object or event after repeated exposure to it.

PT2: 1 Stage five (12 to 18 months) of sensorimotor intelligence is best described as

b. the period of the "little scientist"

PT2: 1. Piaget referred to the shift in an infant's behavior from reflexes to deliberate actions as the shift form

c. primary circular reactions to tertiary circular reactions

PT2: 1 Stage five (12 to 18 months) of sensorimotor intelligence is best described as

b. is a skill some children never acquire
a&c. These are stage two and three
d. This is not one of Piaget's stages of sensorimotor intelligence: secondary circulation reactions to primary circular reactions & primary circular reactions to tertiary circular reactions.

3. (text and A View from Science) Research suggests that the concept of object permanence

c. may occur earlier and more gradually than Piaget recognized.

4. Which of the followinig is an example of a secondary cirular reaction?

c. realizing that rattles make noise, a 4-month old infant laughs with delight when his mother puts a rattle in his hand.
a&b. These are examples of primary circular reactions: 1 month old infant stares at a mobile suspended over her crib & a 2 month old infant sucks a pacifier.
d. This is an example of a teritieary circular reaction:a 12 month od toddler licks a bar of soap to learn what it tastes like.

5. An 18 month old toddler puts a collar on a stuffed dog,then pretends to take it for a walk. The infant's behavior is an example of a _________-

c. tertiary circular reaction

6. According to piaget,the use of deferred initation is an example of stage _______- behavior.

d.six

7. For Noam Chomsky, the language acquistion device refers to ___-

a. the human predisposition to acquire language.
Chomsky believed that this device is innate.

8. The first stage of sensorimotor intelligence lasts until

b. infants begin to adapt their relfexes to the environment.
a&c. : infants can anticipate events that will fulfill their needs & infants nteract with objects to produce exciteing experiencesBoth of these occur later than stage one.
d. infants are capable of thinking aobut past and future events: This is a hallmark of stage six.

9. Whether an infant perceives certain characteritics of objects, such as "suckability" or "graspabilibyt," seems to depend on _______-

d.his or her prior experiences & needs & sensory awareness.

10. (A view from Science ) Piaget was INCORRECT in his belief that infants younger than 8 months do not have __________-

a. object permanence.

11. The purposeful actions that begin to develop in sensorimotor stage four are called _____-

c. goal-directed behaviors.
a. Reflexes are involuntary(and therefore unintentional) responses.
b. Affordances are perceivd opportunities for interaction with objects
d. Mental combinations are actions that are carried out mentally, rather than behaviorally. Moreover, mental combinations do not develop until a later age, during sensorimotor stage six.

12. What is the correct sequence of stages of language dvelopment?

b. crying, cooing, babbling, first word

13. Compared with hearing babies, deaf babies __________-

d.are more likely to babble using hand signals.
a&b. Hearing and deaf babies do not different in the overall likelihood that they will babble.
c. Deaf babies definitely babble

14.According to Skinner, children acquire language

b.through reinforcement and other aspects of conditioning.
a,c&d.: as a result of an nborn ability to use th ebasic strcture of language & mostly because o fbiological maturation & in a fixed sequence of predictable stages: These views on language acquisition describe the theory offered by Noam Chomsky.

15. A fundamental idea of the hybrid model of llanguage acquisition is that _-

b. learning some aspects of alnguage is best explained by one theory at one age, by other theories at another age.
a&c: all humans are born with an innate language acquistion device & language development occurs too rapidly and easily to be entirely the product of condtioning: These ideas are consistent with Noam chomsky's theory.
d. This is the central idea of B.F. Skinner's theory: imitation and reinforcemnt are crucial to the development of language.

Matchin Items: Terms
1. goal-directed behavior

i. puposeful actions

2. visual cliff

a. a device for studying depth perception

3. primary circular reaction

d. a feedback loop involving the infant's own body

4. child-directed speech

g. also called baby talk or motherese

5. new aaptation and anticipation

b. understanding how to reach a goal

6. "Little scientist"

h. Piaget's term for the stage-five toddler

7. mental combinations

c. able to put two ideas together

8.secondary circular reaction

e. a feedback loop involving people and objects

9. tertiary circular reaction

j. a feeback loop involving acive exploration and experimentation

10. LAD

f. a hypothetical device that facilitate language development.

11. Grammar

k. all the methods used by a language to communicate meaning.

Key Terms: Writing Definitions
1. sensorimotor intelligence

Piaget's stages of sensoimotor intelligence (fom birth to about 2 yrs old ) are ased on his theory that infants tink exclusivel with their senses an dmotor skills.

2. primary circular reactions

in Piage'ts theory, primary circular reactions are a type of feedback loop in sensorimotor intelligene involving the infant's own body, in which infants take inexperiences (such as sucking and graspoig) and try to make sense of them.

3. secondary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions are a type of feedback loop in sensorimotor intelligence involving the infant's responses to objects and other people.

4. object permanence

Object permanence is the understanding that objects(including people) continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, touched, or heard.

5. tertiary circular reactions

In Piaget's theory, tetiary circular reactions are the most sophisticated type of infant feedback loop in sensorimotor intelligence, involving active eploration and experimentation.

6."little scientist"

"little scienteist" is Piaget's term for the stage five toddle (12 to 18 month) who learns about the properties of objects in his or her world through active experimentation.

7.deferred imittion

Deferred imitation is the ability of infants to perceive and later copy a behavior they noticed hours or days earlier.

8. habituation

Habituation is the process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it.

9. fMRI

fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) is a measuring technique in which the brain's electtrical excitement indicates activation anywhere in the brain.

Cross Check 6. a brain-imaging technique

fMRI

7. a circular reactoin involving the infant's own body

primary

8. a circular reaction involving peope and objects

secondary

9. a type of perception primed to focus on movement

dynamic

11. the process of getting used to an object

habituation

12. child-directed speech

baby talkl

14. a sudden increase in an inifant's vocabulary

naming explosion

Down: 1. the methods used by languages to communicate meaning

grammar

2. a type of circular reaction that involves active exploration

tertiary

3. a single word used to express a complete thought

holophrase

4. Piaget's term for the stage-five toddler

little scientist

5. an opportunity for perception

affordance

9.imitation of something that occurrred earlier

deferred

10. extended repetition of syllables

babbling

13. chomsky's term for a brainstructure that enable language

LAD

Information-processing theory is a theory of human cognition that compares thinking to the ways in which a computer analyzes data through store memories, and output

Information-processing theory.

Affordance

are perceived oportunities for interacting with people, objects or places in the environment. Infants perceive sucking, grasping, noisemaking, andmany other affordances of objects at an early age.

visual cliff

is an experimental apparatus that provides the illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another

Bynamic perception,

a universal principle of infant perception, is perception that is primes to focus on movement and change.

People preference,

a universal principle of infant perception, is the innate attraction that human babies have to other hmans. P

reminder session

is any perceptual experience that helps people recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience.

Inplicit memory

is unconscious or automatic memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures, and various sensations.

Explicit memory

is memory that is easy to retrieve on demand, usually with words.

Child-directed speech

is a form of speech used by adults when talking to infants. It is simplified, it has a higher ptch, and it is repetitie; it is also called baby talk or motherese.

Babbling

Which begins between 6 and 9 months of age, is characterized by the extended repetition of certain syllable (such as "ma-ma"0.

Another characteristic of infant speech is the use of _______, in which a single word is used to convey a complete, meaningful thought.

holophrase

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