The institutional and cultural foundations of state dominance? (3)
The centralisation of state authority
Formal institutional factors affecting the extent of state dominance? (3)
1. Type of state
(eg. Mao in China, Bureaucracy in Japan)
2. The form of government
(pluralist politics has a more diffuse concentration of power)
3. Models of domestic and international interaction
(desire for national sovereignty and a strong state leads to acceptance of state dominance)
State-society relations and cultural factors affecting the extent of state dominance? (2)
1. State-society relations
2. Cultural traditions & historical practices
Types of states - 4 general categories?
Reign but not rule
ie. Constitutional monarchy is where the constitution vests the monarch with sovereign power
Organising principle of state institutions in people's republics (eg. China)
-->Policies open for discussion, but the final decision making rests with the central authority
Mandate of Heaven
Legitimacy of emperor comes from heaven. - Important foundation for most monarchies in East Asia.
What cultural explain can we find for the lack of calls for political freedoms in East Asia?
Confucianism being the basis for accepting authority
State organised based on principles of father-dominant family ( a way of legitimising the rule of the leader)
predomincnce of state institutions ( see book ), especially the exective branch
How has state-society relations affected the extent of state dominance in China?
In China there is a very strong corporatist structure. Govt oversight and guidance of NGOs and corporations.
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
Constitution vests power to monarch, but the constitution limits that power.(ie the Queen can only exercise power within limits defined by constitution)
Percentage of countries in Pacific Asia that are Republics?
1/3 countries in pacific asia
Main purpose of the Meiji Restoration?
To unify the country by restoring the power of the monarch(emperor) (was a fragmented state)
Why did the USA guide Japan's move from absolute monarchy to constitutional?
To limit the power of the monarch)emperor. Was significant because he had to say he was not devine.
Key question surrounding 'People's republics'?
Are they in transition? Are they stuck?
The rulers are not bound by any constitution
Often military states
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them (??)
Examples of People's republics? (4)
China, Vietnam, North Korea and Laos
'Communist' during the Cold War meant?
The political system was designed for grand transformation towards a communist society with no private ownership and centrally planned economic activity. (Done through cooercion)
a title that has often been used by Marxist-Leninist governments to describe their state. The motivation for using this term lies in the claim that Marxist-Leninists govern in accordance with the interests of the vast majority of the people, and, as such, a Marxist-Leninist republic is a people's republic.
In what way is the constitution the foundation of a political community?
It defines the political community and its organising principles and establishes institutions, relationships and procedures as well as values and purposes for its governance in general terms.
4 ways that states are commonly legitimised?
1. Mandate of heaven
2. Paternalistic state
3. Military as guardian of the state
4. Popular will
Mandate of heaven
-> The state exercises power on behalf of the higher supernatural force (it is the only manifestation of devine forces)
-> Government exercises power because it provides public good
Military as guardian of the state
-> Military exercises state power because it safeguards the security and protects the interest of the state (as in condition of war)
-> Government exercises power on behalf of the people
What is the trend in East Asia with regard to state dominance?
Broad pattern of state dominance
Different state in East Asia reflect what three groups differing characteristics?
Experiences in modern political development
differing contempary political conditions
Trend in Modern East Asian politics with regard to legitimacy?
There is a trend towards popular will ( 3rd wave of democratisation)