ALSTE: Chapter 11 Behaviours for Survival

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Chapter 11 Behaviours for survival Key Words

Behaviour

Activities performed in response to internal and external stimuli.

Circadian rhythm

A daily rhythmic activity cycle, based on 24-hour intervals, that is exhibited by many organisms.

Classical conditioning

Conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is paired with and precedes the unconditionedstimulus until the conditioned stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit the response.

Communication

Transmission of information between organisms.

Competition

Interaction between individuals of the same or different species that use one or more of the same resources.

Day neutral

Plants that flower regardless of the length of day.

Geotropism

Response of a root or shoot towards or against gravity.

Habituation

The gradual decline of a response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to the stimulus.

Heliotropism

The ability for some plants to move so that they remain either perpendicular or parallel to the sun's rays throughout the day. Also called solar tracking.

Imprinting

Rapid learning that occurs during a brief receptive period, typically soon after birth or hatching, and establishes a long-lasting behavioral response to a specific individual or object, as attachment to parent, offspring, or site.

Innate

Behaviour that is genetically predetermined or 'inborn'.

Insight

Complex form of learnt behaviour whereby an individual applies past experience to find solutions to new problems.

Learned

Behaviours that develop or change as a result of experience.

Long day

Plants which flower when the length of day increases to a particular critical point.

Migration

The seasonal movement of a complete population of animals from one area to another.

Nastic movement

Plant movement in which the direction of movement is independent of the direction of the stimulus causing the movement. For example the opening and closing of flowers over a 24 hour period.

Operant conditioning

A process of behavior modification or conditioning in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior.

Pheromones

A chemical substance released by an animal that serves to influence the physiology or behavior of other members of the same species.

Photoperiod

The relative length of day over a 24 hour period.

Rhythmic

Behaviours which are repeated at regular intervals.

Short day

Planta that flower when the length of day decreases to a particular critical point.

Social heirarchy

The different ranks of importance or dominance within an animal group. A pecking order.

Solar tracking

Ability of some plants to track the sun. Also called heliotropism.

Thigmotropism

Plant response to contact with a solid object.

Tropisms

Directional growth of a plant in response to an environmental stimulus.

Phototropism

Movement of a plant in response to light.

Positive tropism

Direction growth of a plant towards an environmental stimulus.

Negative tropism

Direction of growth of a plant away from an environmental stimulus.

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