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Homologous chromosomes

one of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location

Haploid

cell with half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell

Gamete

haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can be combined with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg

meiosis

reduction division process, occurring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid cell produces four haploid cells that are not genetically identical.

crossing over

exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosmes during Prophase I of Meiosis

Genes

functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passed on from one generation to another

allele

alternative form that a single gene may have for a particular trait

dominat

most common, shown most common, appears the most, masks the recessive trait

recessive

hidden or masked; less common

homozygous

organism with 2 of the smae alleles for a specific trait

heterozygous

organism with 2 different alleles for a specific trait

genotype

an organism's allele pairs

phenotype

observable characterisitic that is expressed as a result of an allele pair.

probability

the chances of getting a specific result

sex-linked traits

characteristic controlled by genes on the X chromosome

carrier

individual heterozygous for a recessive disorder

sex chromosomes

X or Y chromosome; paired sex chromosmes determine an individual's gender

autosomes

chromsome that is not a sex chromosome

hybrid

organism heterozygous for a specific trait

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