What do rewards and costs mean in terms of social exchange theory?
REWARDS are anything of value that you gain while COSTS are any negative consequences or losses
What is Interdependence?
When each person's outcomes are linked
How is the simple standard computed?
By adding the rewards and costs of a relationship which equals the outcomes of a relationship. the new profit is associated with an interaction
What is comparison level?
your outcomes compared to what you think is expected and acceptable
What is comparison level for alternatives?
Your outcomes compared to other alternatives currently available
How are comparison level and comparison level for alternatives related to satisfaction and dependence?
They are both based on the outcomes of a particular relationship
What are the four types of relationships identified by social exchange theory?
1. attractive stability 2. attractive instability 3. unattractive stability 4. unattractive instability
How are the Comparison Level and Comparison level for alternatives related to each other?
the comparison level and the comparison level for alternatives lead to stability and instability in relationships
Why aren't comparison levels always stable over time?
they tend to change and are based on prior experiences which means they are flexible because they are changed by relationship experiences and the changing culture
what are the criticisms of social exchange theory?
1. that it is not testable, its central concepts—costs and rewards—are not clearly defined 2.second problem area has to do with the conceptualization of human beings painted by Social Exchange Theory. humans are seen as rational calculators, coming up with numerical equations to represent their relational life. Critics wonder if people are really as self-interested as Social Exchange Theory assumes 3. final critique also focuses on ontological assumptions. This complaint suggests that Social Exchange Theory fails to explain the importance of group solidarity in its emphasis on individual need fulfillment
what is relational turbulence?
states that couples should expect a period of adjustment and turmoil as new partners become accustomed to their new relationship
How are communal relationships the same as exchange relationships?
both communal and exchange relationships give benefits with the expectations of receiving benefits in return
how are communal relationships different from exchange relationships?
communal relationships gives benefits with expectations of receiving comparable benefits in return while exchange relationships give benefits in response to need with no expectation of receiving similar benefits in return
what are the emotional effects of under-benefit and over-benefits?
1. under-benefits leads to anger and resentment while 2. over-benefit leads to guilt and discomfort
what can couples do to restore equity in their relationships?
couples can alter both inputs and outputs for themselves and their partners
what is commitment?
according to the text, it is the intention to continue a relationship while according to Rusbult; it is the tendency to maintain a relationship or to feel psychologically attached to it
according to Rusbult's investment model of commitment, what three factors contribute to commitment?
1. satisfaction 2. alternatives 3. investments
according to Rusbult's investment model of commitment, what is satisfaction?
the degree to which you favorably evaluate your relationship and feel that your partner satisfies your important needs
according to Rusbult's investment model of commitment, what are alternatives?
quality of your realistic alternatives which are the strengths of forces pulling you away from your partner
according to Rusbult's investment model of commitment, what are investments?
things you put into your relationship that you would loose if the relationship ended; a variety of resources tied to the relationship that would be lost or damaged if the relationship ended
what are examples of investments?
time, emotional energy, mutual friends, shared memories and the identity of the partner
what are Johnson's personal, moral and constraint commitments?
PERSONAL COMMITMENT means that one wants to stay; MORAL COMMITMENT means that one ought to stay' CONSTRAINT COMMITMENT means that one has to stay
what is accommodation?
is the willingness to inhibit destructive responses to a partners poor behavior EX: Lash out
what is the willingness to sacrifice?
the willingness to give up your own outcomes for the good of the relationship
what are the two cognitive biases that may be consequences of commitment?
1. reactions to alternatives and 2. adaptive social consequences
what is the perceived superiority effect?
is when most couples believe that their relationships are better than most similar others and the more they thought this, the more satisfied they were
what is social cognition?
text: process of perception and judgment with which we make sense of our social world
Examples: relationship events-cognition responses-emotional response
What does cognitive and emotional responses lead to?
what are the three types of schema?
1. working models 2. relational schemas 3. the interpersonal self
what is the working models schema?
the breakdown of a construct such as attachment and determines the structure of the content of working models
what is the relational schema?
1. states that schema for relationships are special and different from other schema 2. states that each relationship is different 3. schema develop over time from interactions with others 4. who we are depends on who we are interacting with
EXAMPLES: models of self, models of others if...then rules
what is the interpersonal self schema?
states how much of your sense of self includes parts of your partner. that your self changes in the course of the relationship
are first impressions easy or difficult to change?
are difficult to change because they tend to be accurate and long lasting. even incorrect impressions are resistant to change
how are primacy effects and confirmation bias related to first impressions?
they both favor information that confirms the beliefs of the people to have them
what are schema driven memories?
states that we will remember schema relevant and schema consistent information
what are mood congruent memories?
states that we will remember material consistent with the current mood of the individual who has it
how are schema driven and mood congruent memories the same?
both state that a person will remember material that are consistent with information that the individual has
how are schema driven and mood congruent memories different?
schema driven memory are consistent with information while mood congruent memories are based on the current mood of the individual at the time
what is impression management?
when someone actively presents themselves in a particular way so as to influence impressions of others
why do we engage in impression management?
to strategically regulate our behavior and to make impacts on our social interactions
what is self-verification?
asserts people want to be known and understood by others according to their firmly held beliefs and feelings about themselves
what is self-enhancement?
a type of motivation that works to make people feel good about themselves and to maintain self-esteem
how are self-verification and self-enhancement the same?
both state that an individual seeks to be known and understood according to the beliefs held by the individual
how are self-verification and self-enhancement different?
self-verification asserts that people want to be known and understood by others according to their firmly held beliefs and feelings about themselves while self-enhancement is a type of motivation that works to make people feel good about themselves to maintain self-esteem
why would someone with a negative self-concept choose self-verification over self-enhancement?
1. to feel validated 2. to perceive that interactions will go smoothly 3. to anticipate acceptance 4. specific criticisms will mean global acceptance
what is the marriage shift?
stated that there was a difference between dating and married couples in positivity and authenticity and that satisfcation was greatest when partners were verified when when verification was negative
what are positive illusions?
are unrealistically favourable attitudes that people have towards themselves. states that relationship satisfaction is associated with more idealistic perceptions of partners, rather than realistic views
what are the results of the Murray study on positive illusions?
results stated that positive illusions are constrained by reality
what is freud's cupboard theory?
stated that the attachment of the infant is based on the need for food
how did Harlow's monkey experiment refute the cupboard theory?
it stated that the baby monkey would leave it's cloth mother and go to the wire mother for food but would return to the cloth mother upon finished eating.
what are the four components of infant attachment?
1. proximity seeking 2. separation protest 3. safe haven (comfort) 4. secure base (exploration)
what is the strange situation?
a situation in which a mother and her infant enter a room. the baby is allowed to explore the room. the mother watches but does not participate. a stranger enters the room and the mother leaves the room. the stranger remains stood for a moment then talks to the baby for a min. the baby notices the mother gone and begins to cry
how are infant attachment styles identified in the strange situation?
attachment styles are identified with how the infant reacts when the mother returns to the room after leaving
what are the characteristics of secure attachment?
happy, committed, less conflict, more trust, better communication. tolerant of partners faults. tend to have stable relationships.
what are the characteristics of avoidant attachment?
less intimacy, satisfaction and commitment, poor communication. have more relationships but are shorter. less distressed when relationship ends
what are the characteristics of anxious attachment?
more jealousy, less trust, less satisfaction, more conflict, extreme desire for closeness. insecure, feel unappreciated. have stable relationships but tend to stay in bad ones.
what are working models?
assumption is that humans form close bonds in the interest of survival
how do working models of self and others develop?
develop in the context of the child - caregiver relationship which influences thoughts, feelings, behavior which are a part of adult relationships
what is the Norm of Reciprocity?
is the social expectation that people will respond to each other in kind—returning benefits for benefits, and responding with either indifference or hostility to harms
how is the Norm of Reciprocity related to social exchange theory?
social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity are both responsible exchanging between individuals
are attachment styles permanent?
No. because attachment styles are learned and therefore can be learned.
how do infant and adult attachment differ?
mutuality: care giving and receiving, psychological, not physical proximity and integration of sexuality
how are infant and adult attachment similar?
proximity setting, separation protest, safe haven, secure base