____is the accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream (kidney fails to filter wastes)
Each kidney has one million or more functional units called___
___ is a hormone that regulates sodium re-absorption by the distal convoluted tube
___ is a hormone that regulates water permeability of the collecting duct.
Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the ____
Urine is conveyed from the kidney to the bladder by a tube called the ___.
___ is a process in which the tubules remove wastes from the blood and add them to the tubular fluid
The ___ reflex involuntarily empties the bladder unless one consciously suppresses urination.
The yellow color of urine is due to the pigment___
The ___ apparatus monitors the composition and concentration of the tubular fluid and adjusts the glomerular filtration rate
True or False: The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs about the same amount of water regardless of the body's state of hydration
Urine is always hypertonic to blood plasma?
Glycosuria does not occur in diabetes insipidus?
Renin is a hormone that helps control the body's water balance.
The kidneys remove the -NH2 group from amino acids and convert the resulting ammonia into urea.
Uric acid is the most abundant nitrogenous waste in blood.
The osmolarity of a nonionizing solute is equal to its molarity.
After urine enters a minor calyx, it undergoes no further changes in composition or concentration.
Not all nephrons have a nephron loop.
The vasa recta arise mainly from the arcuate arteries and perfuse the renal medulla.
The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is composed of podocytes.
Voluntary control over urination employs the external urinary sphincter.
The bladder could not be emptied without the aid of the micturition center of the pons.
All urea is removed from the blood as it circulates through the kidneys.
Aldosterone has no effect on sodium reabsorption by the proximal convoluted tubule.
The most abundant nitrogenous waste of the blood is
Blood plasma has an osmolarity of about
Starting in the abdominal cavity and progressing dorsally, you would have to cut through the __, in this order, to expose the kidney.
Peritoneum, renal fascia, adipose capsule, and renal capsule
Which of these is not part of a nephron?
Distal convoluted tubule
Urine normally contains all of the following except:
The average adult must excrete at least __ of urine per day to maintain a safe and stable concentration of urea in the blood.
If magnesium chloride completely ionizes in water to Mg2+ and C1-, it would require __ of MgC12 to make 0.5 of a 300 mOsm/L solution.
Cannot be calculated without knowing the molecular weight of MgC12
The 3 regions of male urethra are:
The prostatic, membranous, and penile
The prostatic, bulbar, and penile
The prostatic, vesicular, and penile
The vesicular, bulbar, and penile
The vesicular, membranous, and penile
Prostatic, membranous, penile (pmp)
Immediately after the arcuate artery, blood flows into:
If we follow the ureter into the kidney, we find that the first structure to arise from it is:
The cells of the distal convoluted tubule that come in contact with the afferent arteriole are:
The blood vessels of the renal medulla that run alongside the nephron loops are
the vasa recta
The trigone is a triangular region of:
the urinary bladder
There is one __ for each nephron.
The total amount of fluid entering the capsular spaces of all the nephrons in a given time is called:
glomerular filtration rate
The kidneys do not:
control blood pressure
regulate the pH of body fluids
have any role in erythrocyte production
produce vitamin D
secrete hormones that stimulate thirst
secrete hormones that stimulate thirst
By constricting the ___, angiotensin II maintains the blood pressure in the glomerulus even when systemic blood pressure drops.
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
the proximal convoluted tubule.
The thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop is permeable to:
water but not urea
sodium ions but not potassium ions
sodium and potassium ions but not chloride
water, but not salts
Sodium, potassium, and chloride ions but not water
sodium, potassium, and chloride ions, but not water
The collecting duct reabsorbs not only water but also __, thus contributing to the osmotic gradient of the renal medulla.
Kidney damage can cause __, the excretion of protein in the urine.
The glomerular capsule and glomerulus make up
a renal corpsucle
Glucose gets from the tubular fluid into the cytoplasm of the proximal convoluted tubule cells by means of:
secondary active transport
A simple squamous epithelium is found in:
a. Parietal/visceral layers of glomerular capsule
b. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop
c. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and proximal convoluted tubule
d. The renal pelvis and ureter
Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop
If not for the countercurrent multiplier, the kidneys could not produce-