Chapter 23 part 1 (Advanced)

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T/F, fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice. More possible choices, or no choices at all.

____is the accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream (kidney fails to filter wastes)

Azotemia

Each kidney has one million or more functional units called___

Nephrons

___ is a hormone that regulates sodium re-absorption by the distal convoluted tube

Aldosterone

___ is a hormone that regulates water permeability of the collecting duct.

Antidiuretic hormone

Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the ____

glomerulus

Urine is conveyed from the kidney to the bladder by a tube called the ___.

ureter

___ is a process in which the tubules remove wastes from the blood and add them to the tubular fluid

tubular secretion

The ___ reflex involuntarily empties the bladder unless one consciously suppresses urination.

micturition

The yellow color of urine is due to the pigment___

Urochrome

The ___ apparatus monitors the composition and concentration of the tubular fluid and adjusts the glomerular filtration rate

juxtaglomerular

True or False: The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs about the same amount of water regardless of the body's state of hydration

True

Urine is always hypertonic to blood plasma?

False

Glycosuria does not occur in diabetes insipidus?

True

Renin is a hormone that helps control the body's water balance.

False

The kidneys remove the -NH2 group from amino acids and convert the resulting ammonia into urea.

False

Uric acid is the most abundant nitrogenous waste in blood.

False

The osmolarity of a nonionizing solute is equal to its molarity.

True

After urine enters a minor calyx, it undergoes no further changes in composition or concentration.

True

Not all nephrons have a nephron loop.

True

The vasa recta arise mainly from the arcuate arteries and perfuse the renal medulla.

False

The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is composed of podocytes.

True

Voluntary control over urination employs the external urinary sphincter.

True

The bladder could not be emptied without the aid of the micturition center of the pons.

False

All urea is removed from the blood as it circulates through the kidneys.

False

Aldosterone has no effect on sodium reabsorption by the proximal convoluted tubule.

True

The most abundant nitrogenous waste of the blood is

urea

Blood plasma has an osmolarity of about

300 mOsm/L

Starting in the abdominal cavity and progressing dorsally, you would have to cut through the __, in this order, to expose the kidney.

Peritoneum, renal fascia, adipose capsule, and renal capsule

Which of these is not part of a nephron?
Glomerulus
Glomerular capsule
Nephron loop
Collecting duct
Distal convoluted tubule

Collecting duct

Urine normally contains all of the following except:
Sodium
Urea
Glucose
Creatinine
Potassium

Glucose

The average adult must excrete at least __ of urine per day to maintain a safe and stable concentration of urea in the blood.
30 mL
100 mL
400 mL
1,200 mL
4,400 mL

400 mL

If magnesium chloride completely ionizes in water to Mg2+ and C1-, it would require __ of MgC12 to make 0.5 of a 300 mOsm/L solution.

15 millimoles
50 millimoles
100 millimoles
150 millimoles
Cannot be calculated without knowing the molecular weight of MgC12

50 millimoles

The 3 regions of male urethra are:
The prostatic, membranous, and penile
The prostatic, bulbar, and penile
The prostatic, vesicular, and penile
The vesicular, bulbar, and penile
The vesicular, membranous, and penile

Prostatic, membranous, penile (pmp)

Immediately after the arcuate artery, blood flows into:
Renal arteries
Afferent arterioles
Interlobar arteries
Peritubular capillaries

Interlobar arteries

If we follow the ureter into the kidney, we find that the first structure to arise from it is:
renal sinus
renal pelvis
renal pyramids
major calices
minor calices

renal pelvis

The cells of the distal convoluted tubule that come in contact with the afferent arteriole are:
macula densa
mesangial cells
podocytes
juxtaglomerular cells
juxtamedullary cells

macula densa

The blood vessels of the renal medulla that run alongside the nephron loops are

the vasa recta

The trigone is a triangular region of:

the urinary bladder

There is one __ for each nephron.

afferent arteriole

The total amount of fluid entering the capsular spaces of all the nephrons in a given time is called:

glomerular filtration rate

The kidneys do not:
control blood pressure
regulate the pH of body fluids
have any role in erythrocyte production
produce vitamin D
secrete hormones that stimulate thirst

secrete hormones that stimulate thirst

By constricting the ___, angiotensin II maintains the blood pressure in the glomerulus even when systemic blood pressure drops.

efferent arteriole

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by

the proximal convoluted tubule.

The thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop is permeable to:
water but not urea
sodium ions but not potassium ions
sodium and potassium ions but not chloride
water, but not salts
Sodium, potassium, and chloride ions but not water

sodium, potassium, and chloride ions, but not water

The collecting duct reabsorbs not only water but also __, thus contributing to the osmotic gradient of the renal medulla.

urea

Kidney damage can cause __, the excretion of protein in the urine.

albuminuria

The glomerular capsule and glomerulus make up

a renal corpsucle

Glucose gets from the tubular fluid into the cytoplasm of the proximal convoluted tubule cells by means of:

secondary active transport

A simple squamous epithelium is found in:
a. Parietal/visceral layers of glomerular capsule
b. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop
c. Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and proximal convoluted tubule
d. The renal pelvis and ureter

Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop

If not for the countercurrent multiplier, the kidneys could not produce-

hypertonic urine

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