# LSAT

## 24 terms · A collection of LSAT terms and concepts

Information or Reasoning

### QT Main Point

Key words: main point, main conclusion, argument is structured to lead to, which conclusion

### QT Reasoning

Key words: X responds to Y by...,claim that....plays what role, technique/method/strategy of argumentation/reasoning

Answer by matching with the passage

### QT Necessary Assumption

Assumption on which the argument depends/relies, assumption required

Answer by identifying what will help the conclusion, also employ the negation test, also identify the gap

### Define, a necessary factor

A necessary factor is something required to get a result. However, it does not guarantee the result by itself. If a necessary factor is not satisfied, the result cannot occur.

### Define, a sufficient factor

A sufficient factor is something that is enough by itself to guarantee a result. However, sufficient factors are not always required in order to achieve the result.

### Flaw Causal

Flaw
assumes correlation indicates causation; no other causes; causality is not reversed

### Flaw Necessary vs Sufficient

Flaw
assumes something required to get a result is enough by itself to guarantee the result (the flaw of N); something guaranteed to get a result is a requirement of that result (the flaw of S)

### Flaw Surveys and Samples

Flaw
Assumes survey/sample is representative of a larger population; survey/sample is relevant to the conclusion and conducted without flaws in methodology

### Flaw Comparison

Flaw
Assumes two things or time periods are comparable in all relevant factors; what is true of a part is true of the whole (or vice versa)

### Flaw Percentages/Numbers

Flaw
Assumes percentages or ratios are based on the same quantities

### Flaw Absence of evidence

Lack of evidence for a phenomenon is taken as proof it does not exist; a flaw in evidence attempting to prove a phenomenon is taken as evidence it does not exist

### Flaw Appeals and Attacks

Assumes something is true because an (often dubious) authority says so; assumes a personal characteristic is relevant to the substance of that person's argument

### Flaw Shifting Meanings

Switches the meaning of a term in the middle of an argument without acknowledging the shift. Ambiguous

### Flaw Circular

conclusion merely restates the premises

### QT Sufficient Assumption

Key Words
if assumed, allows the conclusion to follow logically, allows the conclusion to be properly drawn

Purpose, to help the argument

### QT Strengthen

Looking to help the argument, the key words include most supports/justifies the argument above,
most strengthen

### QT Weaken

Looking to identify the answer that most undermines, calls into question or casts doubt on the passage or argument

### QT Flaw

Trying to identify a flaw or error in the reasoning of the argument. The argument is vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it...

### QT Inference

You want to extract information that could justify, support or deny the the question.

The statements above, if true, support; must/could be true/false

### QT Point at Issue

Typically a conversation or an argument between two people are presented.

You have to identify the exact issue they are disagreeing about

### QT Resolve / Explain

Looking to help the argument by clarifying a puzzling statement/ apparent contradiction/ paradox or by identifying the answer that would offer the best resolution or explanation

### QT Parallel

you will be given an argument and it is your job to find the answer most analogous or similar in pattern of reasoning. Typically this will be associated with a flaw, not that you have to identify the flaw, but it will be a centrifugal part of the argument's reasoning or structure that you must compare

### QT Principle

Choose the answer that best conforms or illustrates the above principle or proposition.
Typically an underlying or explicit principle that must be identified and applied.

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