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Mitosis/ Meiosis test

Nucleotide

Subunit of DNA

Sugar in Dna

Deoxyribose Sugar

Four bases in DNA

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Guanine

Purines

Adenine, Guanine (Two rings)

Pyrimidines

Cytosine, Thymine (One ring)

Base Pairing

Adenine+ Thymine, Cytosine+ Guanine

Nitrogenous Bases

Held together by hydrogen bonds

Nucleotides

Held together by covalent (phosphodiester) bonds

Gene

Composed of DNA, a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic

Allele

One specific form of a gene differeing from other Alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene cocus as other aleles of that gene

Genome

The whole genetic information of the organism

Gene Mutation

A change in the base sequence of an allele

Sickle Cell Anemia

Cells become sickle shaped, cant hold as much oxygen, leads to necrosis of the tubules, kidney damage or failure and possible death

Sickle Cell mutation

Changes a single base (T Replaces A)

Cell Cycle

Repeating set of events that make up life of a cell

Interphase

G1, S, G2

G1

Cell grows and matures, performs normal differentiated functions: Protein Synthesis, respiration, gylcolysis, transcription

S Phase

DNA Replication

G2

Cell prepares for division, mitochondria and chroloplast replication

M Phase

Nucleus Divides

Cytokinesis

Cytoplasm divides to form two cells

G0

Exits cell cyle

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

Haploid

1n

Diploid

2n

Metaphase

Chromosomes line up at the equator

Anaphase

Sister Chromosomes seperate and move to opposite poles

Telophase

Chromosomes start to return to chromatin and nucleus starts to return

Growth and Embroyonic development

This involves increasing the number of differientated cells

Tissue Repair

Dead or damaged cells are replaced by new cells

Asexual Reproduction

Bacteria, Clones

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