AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 14: Plants

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From 5 ways to a 5.

Roots

Portion of the plant that is below ground.

Shoots

All parts of the plant above ground.

Collenchyma Cells

Live plant cells that provide flexible and mechanical support, often found in stems and leaves.

Parenchyma Cells

Plant cells that play a role in photosynthesis, storage, and secretion.

Mesophyll Cells

A type of paranchyma cells that contain many chloroplasts and host the majority of photosynthesis.

Sclerenchyma Cells

Plant cells that function as protection for seeds and mechanical support for the adult plant.

Xylem

The "superhighway," or important part of the vascular tissue in plants, through which water and nutrients travel through the plant from the roots. Also functions as a support structure that strengthens the plant.

Vessel Elements

Xylem cells that are more efficient in water transport in angiosperms.

Tracheid Cells

Less efficient cells that are impermeable to water; found in the xylem.

Phloem

Important part of plant vascular tissue that functions to transport sugars from their production site to the rest of the plant.

Sieve-tube Elements

Functionally mature cells of the phloem that are alive.

Epidermis

The protective outer coating of plants.

Guard Cells

Cells within the epidermis of plants that control the opening and closing of the stomata using turgor pressure.

Root Hairs

Hairs extending off the surface root tips that increase the surface area for absorption of water and nutrients from the soil.

Brush Border

Large numbers of microvilli that increase the surface area of the small intestine to improve absorption efficiency.

Taproot System

System of roots found in many dicots that starts as one thick root and divides into many smaller lateral roots, which serve as an anchor for the plant.

Lateral Roots

Roots that serve to hold a plant in place in the soil.

Fibrous Root System

Root system found in monocots that provides the plant with a very strong anchor without going very deep into the soil.

Endodermis

Cells that line the innermost layer of the cortex in plants that give rise to the casparian strip.

Casparian Strip

Obstacle that blocks the passage of water through the endodermis of plants.

Vascular Cylinder

Structure in plants that is composed of cells that produce the lateral roots of the plant.

Pericycle

The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder of a root, where lateral roots originate.

Meristemic Cells

Cells that allow plants to grow indeterminately.

Apical Meristem

Region at the tip of the roots and shoots where plant growth is concentrated and many actively dividing cells can be found.

Primary Plant Growth

Initial increase in the length of a plant.

Lateral Meristems

Cells that extend all the way through the plant from roots to shoots and provide the secondary growth that increases the girth of a plant.

Secondary Plant Growth

Additional growth that leads to an increase in plant girth.

Root Cap

Protective structure found around the apical meristem of a root that keeps it together as it pushes through the soil.

Zone of Cell Division

Region at the tip a root formed by the actively dividing cells of the apical meristems.

Zone of Elongation

Region in which the cells elongate tremendously during plant growth.

Zone of Maturation

Region in the plant where cells differentiate into their final forms.

Cuticle

Waxy covering the protects terrestrial plants against water loss composed of Cutin and Wax.

Palisade Mesophyll

Host of many chloroplasts and much of the photosynthesis of a leaf.

Spongy Mesophyll

Region of a plant where the cells are more loosely arranged, aiding in the passage of CO2 to cells performing photosynthesis.

Bundle-Sheath Cells

Cells that are tightly wrapped around the veins of a leaf. They are also the site of the Calvin Cycle in C4 plants.

Cutin

Waxy coat that protects plants.

Vascular Cambium

A cylinder of tissue that extends the length of the stem and root and gives rise to the secondary xylem and phloem.

Cork Cambium

Area that produces a thick cover for stems and roots and produces tissue that replaces dried-up epidermis lost during secondary growth.

Abscisic Acid

Plant hormone that inhibits cell growth, prevents premature germination, and stimulates closing of the stomata.

Auxin

Plant hormone that leads to elongation of stems and plays a role in phototropism and gravitropism.

Cytokinins

Plant hormone that promotes cell division and leaf enlargement, and slows down the aging of leaves.

Ethylene

Plant hormone that initiates the ripening of fruit and the dropping of leaves and flowers from trees.

Gibberellins

Plant hormone that assists in stem elongation and induces growth in dormant seeds, buds, and flowers.

Tropism

Plant growth that occurs in response to an environmental stimulus such as sunlight or gravity.

Gravitropism

A plant's growth response to gravitational force. Auxin and gibberellins are involved in this response.

Phototropism

A plant's growth in response to light. Auxin is the hormone involved in this process.

Thigmotropism

A plant's growth in response to touch.

Coleoptile

Protective structure found around a grass seedling.

Circadian Rhythm

A physiologic cycle that occurs in time increments that are roughly equivalent to the length of a day.

Photoperiodism

The response by a plant to the change in the length of days.

Florigen

Hormone thought to assist in the blooming of flowers.

Phytochrome

Important pigment in the process of flowering because it leads to the production of florigen.

Short-Day Plants

Plants, such as pointsettias, that flower if exposed to nighttime conditions longer than a critical period length.

Long-Day Plants

Plants, such as spinach, which flower if exposed to a night that is shorter than a critical period.

Root Pressure

Driving force that contributes to the movement of water through the xylem of a plant.

Capillary Action

A phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries

Cohesion-Tension Theory

Causes most of the xylem movement, as H20 evaporates from open stomata, water is pulled up capillaries to replace what was lost

Translocation

Movement of carbohydrates through the phloem.

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