invented the flying shuttle; allowed weavers to work twice as fast
invented the spinning jenny which made yarn in greater quantities
invented a loom that is powered by water
improved the steam engine, which was used to pump water out of mines; also invented rotary engine that could be used on looms
(1780's) Inventor of the puddling system in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality.
invented the paddle wheel steamboat
Great Potato Famine
famine in Ireland caused by the overdependence on the potato crop
Factory Act of 1833
Makes the minimum age to work 9 years old and limits hours for those under 18
A later socialist who believed utopian socialists were impractical
utopian socialist who believed that humans would show natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
favoring obedience to political authority and having belief in need for an organized religion
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
principle of intervention
right to send armies into revolting countries to keep peace and restore legitimate monarchs
protection of basic rights, religious toleration. and separation of church and state, demands the right for a peaceful protest, and has a belief in a constitutional monarchy or state
Became king of France after Charles X is overthrown and loses power in 1848 after he is overthrown.
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Elected in 1848 because he supported universal male sufferage. He was also Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew and becomes emperor Napoleon III in 1852. However he loses a war with Prussia in 1870, getting himself expelled from France.
King Frederick William IV
Agrees to establish a new constitution and work for a united Germany
Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime Minister to Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont who worked to unite Northern Italy, and got Garibaldi to give Southern Italy to him
Patriot of Southern Italy who leads the Red Shirts, and takes most of Southern Italy except for Vienna and Rome, who are later added into the united Italy. He gives his conquered territory to Cavour.
author of "War and Peace"
King William I
King of Prussia who believed in militarism, or the glorification of military. He appointed Count Otto Von Bismarck as prime minister. He ends up becoming the kaiser, or emperor, of the Second German Empire
Count Otto Von Bismarck
Prime minister of Prussia under King William I who increased taxes to strengthen the Prussian army. He was a realpolitik, who believed in politics based on practical matters. He ended up uniting Germany after winning the Franco-Prussian War
Queen Victoria of Britain
Longest ruler in English history (1837-1901).
Tzar of Russia who decides to emancipate all serfs and slaves, but make them live in mirs to make sure they would pay off their land debt. He ends up being assassinated in 1881.
Federalist who wants a strong, central government
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Two Republicans, who fear a strong, central government
becomes president in 1828, and introduces mass democratic politics, allowing almost all adult white males to vote.
the movement to end slavery
president who issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves in the US
The head of Upper Canada's (Quebec) conservative party, who becomes the first prime minister of Canada after the British North American Act, which established Canada as a nation.
period of history that stressed reason
period of history where using intuition, emotion, feelings, and sentiment were good, and it valued individualism. Romanticists also had an interest in the past.
wrote "Ivanhoe" a book about the clash between Saxon and Norman knights
poet of the Romantic period
Ludwig von Beethoven
one of the best classical/romantic composers ever
pianist who was said to be the best ever
discovered the germ theory of disease, which is crucial in modern medicinal practices
Put together the periodic table
made a generator that laid the foundation for the use of electricity
came up with the theory of evolution/ believed we had animal origins
belief that the world should be viewed realistically
most famous artist in realism