Music hum madness rev

766 terms by jai2112 

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dynamics/volume

intensity of sound

rubato

..., a flexible tempo using slight variations of speed to enhance musical expression

presto furioso

fast and furious

syllabic singing

singing one note per syllable

functional harmony

each chord assumed a special role (or function) in relation to the tonic chord (the chord on the home pitch); when one chord follows another in Baroque music, it does so in a newly predictable and purposeful way;
a method of organizing large-scale pieces of music

Ligeti

György Sándor Ligeti (May 28, 1923 - June 12, 2006) was a composer, born in a Hungarian Jewish family in Transylvania, Romania. He briefly lived in Hungary before later becoming an Austrian citizen. Many of his works are well known in classical music circles, but to the general public, he is best-known for the various pieces featured in the Stanley Kubrick films 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut

tempo

speed of a piece, fixed rate of the beat, classically written in Italian

atonal music

music built on structures other than tonality

parallel organum

2 voices moving in parallel

song cycle (genre)

songs unified on subject

plainchant/gregorian chants (genre)

unaccompanied church music sung in relation to liturgical words

melismas

...

Program Music

Instumental music that has literary or pictorial associations.

syncopation

emphasis of non-strong beats

points of imitation

most pervasive Renaissance technique and texture, where the repeated theme continuously changes (unlike Baroque fugue)

chamber music

music written for small groups or ensembles, designed to be played inside rooms on secular occasions

Prokofiev

Russian- Neo-Classic style, atonal music-"Peter and the Wolf"

Interval

distance or gap between two pitches

interval

distance or gap between two pitches

basso obstinato

repeated bass line

Kyrie

only Mass Ordinary prayer in Greek

accent

...

dynamics

intensity of sound. another name for volume

octave

...

melody

series of organized pitches

Polyphony

more than one note/melody at the same time
Ex: Josquin's "Ava Maria" (pre Council of Trent)

John Dunstaple

English composer who brought 3rds to the continent in the 1420s, while England was occupying area in Burgundy and attempting to seize French throne. employer executed Joan of Arc.

resolution

the transition of a tense harmony/chord (dissonance) into an expected harmony/chord of repose (consonance)

aria

A vocal number for solo singer and orchestra, generally in an opera, cantata, or oratorio (88,141)

new and better instruments

silver flute
english horn
ophicleide
keyed trumpet

da capo aria

An aria that is sung in ABA form, one in which the A section is sung at the end. (141)

Carolingian Empire

founded by Charlemagne c. 800, later known as HRE

cadence

...

concerto grosso

Italian Baroque concerto for group of soloists, with first and last fast movements in ritornello form

Tchaikovsky

important Russian composer whose works are noted for their expressive melodies (1840-1893)

homorhythm

all melodic lines share the same rhythm (have silences and can pick out individual lines)

chorale

A four-part harmonization of a Lutheran hymn, such as Bach composed in his Cantata No. 4 and other works. (150)

imitative polyphony

delayed of same melody

entrainment

way of sensing the passage of time in segments that are hierarchically stacked

symphony (classical)

4 movements: fast, slow, minuet (or scherzo) fast

isorhythm

in 14th century music technique of repeating the identical rhythm for each section of a composition while the pitches are altered (60)

da capo

a direction to a performer to repeat from the beginning of a piece of music up to a later point. (141)

lied (genre)

short song with sophisticated poem

exposition

section in fugue where all voices enter in succession

Haydn

Rococo (18th c.); first high social position with just his genius; all musical forms; more than 100 symphonies; seriousness without gloom; "Father of Symphony"; "London Symphony" (Last 10)

tempo

speed of piece, fixed rate of the beat

Rhythm

1- organization of time in music; 2- a pattern of beats and pulses; 3- refers to values or length of a note or series of notes.

entrainment

way of sensing the passage of time in segments that are hierarchically stacked

simple meter

...

ternary form

A B A form

word painting

sounds match meaning of words

chromatic scale

all of the available notes in Western music. there are 12 and they consist of white and black keys on piano

Melisma

more than two notes per syllable
Ex:Anonymous "Viderunt Omnes"

counterpoint

the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies

delayed gratification

deference of resolution which generates suspense and attentiveness, adding aesthetic importance to long-awaited moment

point of imitation
declamation

...

Louis XIV

mid-17th century king with court composers writing dance suites (Lully)

measure/bar

single group or cycle of beats with its own downbeat

Conjunct Motion

means our melody move in steps or small intervals

major/minor

associated with positive and negative human emotions. central to emotional language of West

Bartok

Hungarian composer and pianist who collected Hungarian folk music

tocatta

an instrumental piece made to show off the virtuosity of the player. can replace an overture.

Diatonic Scale

one tonic at bottom, one at top of scale--7 notes in the diatonic scale. The 8th being tonic repeat.

tonality, tonal/harmonic language

entire system of standardized interrelationships between harmonies

fugue

A composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme, the ______ subject. (95,131)

Whole Tone Scale

A scale, sometimes by Debussy, comprising only 6 notes to the octave, each a whole tone apart

homophony

either a melody line above chords, or when all voices move together at same time

functional harmony

idea that all chords have relation to home tonic

ground bass

...

melismatic singing

singing multiple notes per syllable

strophic

repeated music for each stanza

string quartet

an instrumental group consisting of two violins, viola, and cello

Vivaldi

late Baroque composer famous for many dramatic concertos and use of Ritornello form. Inspired Bach.

meter

way in which pulses are arranged in each measure, usually in 3s or 4s (not 5s or 7s in Western music)

cello

An instrument in the violin family, known for its rich tone. Among the strings, it has the second-lowest range, higher only than the bass viol, and it has the lowest part in string quartets. Players hold the instrument between their knees to play it.

madrigal

...

French Baroque Music

stately and graceful style of baroque music with overtures and dance suites

harmony

functionality of chords, specific syntactical relationships between chords

overtones

...

tonic/key

primary harmony and consonance of a piece

opera seria

serious opera

Puccini

Who was known for verismo?

percussion

timpani, cymbals, snare drum, xylophone, etc.

Ars Nova

musical movement developing free polyphony

Leonin, Perotin

composers and innovators of the Notre Dame School of Polyphony famous for organum

ars nova

Contemporary term for new 14th century polyphonic music that came after organum. (60)

harmony

functionality of chords, specific syntactical relationships between chords

mass (genre)

large scale religious piece

England

Romantic Opera never went where?

opera (form)

(intro=overture) (act I: [recitative] [aria] [rec] [aria] [chorus], etc.) (act II: same as I) (act III: same as I)

Josquin

composer ushering in Golden Age of Polyphony

Musorgsky

Russian musical nationalist

minnesingers

...

concertato principle

Antiphonal music eventually developing into concerto/concerto grosso

German/flemish songs

romantic, dramatic, military or political in character

meter

describes how pulses are arranged in each measure

metronome

...

Gregorian chant/plainsong/plainchant

medieval chant without sense of recurring downbeats, first is without meter

Oratorio

Sacred drama or extended musical composition for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra that is performed without any action, scenery, or costume, in a church or concert hall, Handle, more religious

downbeat

first beat of a cycle

troubadours

alba

serenade

light piece for strings alone.

French overture

type of piece popularized by Lully, usually fond at beginning of dance suites and operas

homophony

musical texture consisting of multiple voices all sounding together at the same time

recitative

music + speech, expresses narrative

ritornello form

theme comes back again, often played by full orchestra. theme inserted between soloist and tutti in virtuosic fashion.

imitative polyphony

when various voices imitate each other at time intervals

melody

expansive
singable
wide range
more chromatic

Divine Office/Canonical Hours

holy times of day corresponding to set of prayers to be recited or chanted

recitative

half-singing half-reciting style of presenting words in an opera, cantata, oratorio etc. (88,141)

Motet

Religious song with emphasis on word

word painting

...

triple meter

meter of waltz

Palestrina

composer at end of Renaissance and Golden Age of Polyphony (1600) renowned for purity and smoothness

upbeats

weak or weak parts of beats

Tonic/Key

primary harmony and consonance of the piece.

canzona

imitation, what will become fugue

harpsichord

keyboard instrument; forerunner for the modern piano

repeated theme (not R)

ostinato

rhythm

generic term referring to temporal placement of musical events

cantata

A composition in several movements for solo voice, instruments, and perhaps also chorus. Depending on the text, ___________s are catigorized as secular or church ___________s. (149)

Ars Subtilior

musical movement developed around Avignon and including Ciconia

triple meter

meter of waltz

Syncopation

the accenting of certain beats of the meter that are ordinarily unaccented

sequence

one motive that oscillates throughout register

Handel

Late Baroque German composer (1685) worked mostly in England

rhythm

regular repetition of sound

mensural notation

notation style invented c. 1250 that can record any rhythm

octave

interval that produces perception of sameness

Program Symphony

Multimovement orchestral work. (Tells a story)

melismatic

many notes per syllable

Notre Dame School of Polyphony

where composers like Leonin and Perotin experimented with organum (1150-1250), increasing number of voices from 3 to 4. Developed repeating rhythmic patterns in triple meter, constituting the first metrical music.

Italian Baroque Music

dramatic and emotionally charged style of baroque music with concertos

motet

Early _______s were based on fragments of Gregorian chant but was quite secular. ______ means wordy in french. / By 16th century the term described a usually sacred vocal composition; they complemented mass, unlike mass the words varied significantly. (59,76)

dance suite

type of piece assimilated by German composers like Handel and Bach from France

consonance

...

dissonance

...

organum

musician harmonizing with chant

monophony

...

dominant-tonic relationship

most common relationship between chords that leads to resolution

pizzicato

...

variation (form)

|:theme: ab:| |:var. 1: a'b':| |:var. 2: a''b'':| (coda) etc.

compound meter

combinations of duple and triple meter

Solo singing

This became a favorite genre.

monophony

single voice

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